DSK: Facilitating Water Supply for Poor Urban Communities

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Facilitating Water Supply for Poor
Urban Communities
Ranajit Das
Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK)
Bangladesh
Email: ranajit_das@dskbangladesh.org
Bangladesh Context
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150 million people live in Bangladesh with annual
growth 1.8%
40% live below poverty level
25% of the total population are extreme poor
30% of the population live in urban areas ( 50 million)
Urban population rising 6% annually
Urban population expected to reach 50% by 2025
Predicted half of the urban population will live in urban
slums by 2025
Average daily income of the slum dwellers Tk 70- 150 (
USD 1-1.5)
Poor pay more get less
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About 7000 slums and low income settlements in Bangladesh but
5000 slums in Dhaka city ( capital city) .
3.4 million people live in slum in Dhaka
Population of Dhaka city is 12 million and projected population of
Dhaka city will be 25 million by 2025 and half of them will be slum
dwellers
Generally no legal water supply in the slums
People buy water from illegal vendor and pay BDT 150-200/2000Lit (
12-15 times higher f the official rate ) but get less water with highly
contamination
Cont….
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Over 80% dwellers use unhygienic hanging
toilet
House rent BDT 1500-2000/ month for 100120 sq.ft room which same as rich people
pay
Pay for electricity 120-150/month/ per bulb(
illegal connection) which is 10 times higher
than official rate
Two oven Gas supply cost Tk 450 but slum
dwellers pay Tk 1600 (8 families use two
oven @ Tk 200)
DSK’s WatSan journey
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DSK started its Water and sanitation interventions in urban
slum in 1992
Main objective
 100% coverage by water , sanitation and hygiene promotion to
improve health of the poor and extreme poor people
DSK’s WatSan is integrated with Safe legal water supply
 Environmental sanitation
 Hygiene promotion
 Community empowerment
 Advocacy for pro-poor policy
Water Supply in urban slums
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Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) the
only water supply agency in Dhaka city
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DWASA had written laws that ‘ people must have legal
ownership document of the house/ land to get water
connection.
By laws it was denied water right of the slum dwellers as they
do not have any legal document of the land to have water
connection.
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So, slum dwellers were forced to depend on illegal water
supply or have to beg water to other people who have supply
Cont…
In this scenario, DSK has started WatSan interventions for slum
dwellers of Dhaka city in 1992
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After a continuous discussions and negotiation with DWASA for
legal water connection, DSK finally got 2 water connections in
DSK’s name as a “ Pilot Case” to provide water connection to
the slum dwellers.
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DSK installed two “Community Based Water Point” managed by
the community in 1992.
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After successful operation of two “Community Based Water
Point” DWASA extended its support to DSK for more water
points for slum dwellers.
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DWASA considered 2 majors areas
Regular 100% water bill payment by slum dwellers
Reduce non revenue water ( reduce illegal connection)
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DSK Water Point Model
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Over the period the DSK water point facilities become popular to
the slum dwellers, Govt., NGOs/Donors and now it is called “ DSK
Water Point Model”
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The Model is replicating by NGOs, Donors, NU agencies , Govt. for
slum dwellers.
Cont..
The DSK model Water Point
 Community based and community
managed through a management
committee
 Easy manageable
 Use one point by 20-40 families ( based
on the capacity)
 Legal and get adequate water without
buying time
 No queue to collect water
 Very much women friendly
 Less pay for water ( 10-15% times less)
 No tension to dis-connection as it is
legal
 No fix time to water collection
 Community ownership over the
connection
DSKs sanitation facilities
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DSK also provides sanitation facilities
to the slum dwellers along with safe
legal water supply
Toilets are community based with
septic tank facility
Toilets are women and disable friendly
Vacutug ( a mechanized device ) for
empting septic tank
soiled waste managed for slum
dwellers
Participatory Hygiene Promotion
Hygiene promotion is one of the key components of DSK’s
WatSan interventions.
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Courtyard session for Hygiene Group (Adult, child,
Adolescents
School HP
Menstrual Hygiene
Management
Follow-up at HH level
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Participatory monitoring of HP
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Disable Friendly WatSan
Technology
WP ownership by the community
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In 2007 DWSAS first 4 WPs ownership transferred from DSK to Community
name : 1st official ownership of slum dwellers
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In 2008 DWASA changed its law of water connection - now it says by
forming a CBO slum dwellers can have a water connection directly from
DWASA by their own name.
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After 16 years of advocacy initiatives by DSK finally slum dwellers get their
water right in Dhaka City. The other city yet to give water connection directly
to the slum dwellers. DSK has been also working other city to establish
water right for slum dwellers
A Successful Advocacy Outcome
Slum dwellers obtained
permission of water connection in the name of CBO
Slum dwellers are entitled as DWASA legal customer
(DWASA incorporated the issue in the by-laws)
DWASA transferred ownership
of water point from DSK to community
MoU between DWASA & NGOs
Dhaka WASA reduced the security money
from Tk. 10,000 to Tk. 1000
Initial permission for 2 water points for
slum dwellers in the name of DSK
Experiences and Challenges
Experiences
 Evidence based advocacy create more influence over
policy makers
 Community participation and their capacity building is
important
Challenges
 Stop continuous slum eviction without notice and
alternative arrangement for the slum dwellers
 Manage slum power structure for slum development
 Find adequate space for installing WatSan infrastructure
in slums
Work together for their better future
Reference
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BBS, Govt. of Bangladesh 2007
 World Bank 2000
 Slums of Urban Bangladesh Mapping and Census , 2005 ,CUS, MEASURE
NIPRT 2005
 DSK project information
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