- Department of Community Medicine ACME Pariyaram

“a mechanism for the collection, processing, analysis
and transmission of information required for organizing
and operating health services, and also for research &
 Data – Discrete observations of attributes or events
that carry little meaning when considered alone
 Information – It is data which is reduced, summarized
& adjusted for variations such as the age & sex of
population so that comparison over time & place are
 Intelligence – Produced when information is
transformed through integration & processing with
experience & perceptions based on social & political
 Demography & vital events
 Environmental health statistics
 Health status – mortality, morbidity, disability & quality
of life
Health resources – facilities, beds, manpower
Utilization & non utilization of health services –
attendance, admissions
Indices of outcome of medical care
Financial statistics related to particular objective
 Measure health status & quantify health problems & needs
 Local, national & international comparisons
 Planning, administration and management
 Asses effectiveness & efficiency of health services
 For research
1. Census
“ Total process of collecting, compiling & publishing
demographic, economic & social data pertaining at a
specified time, to all persons in a country or delimited
2. Registration of vital events
 Keeps a continuous check on vital events
 Central birth & death registration act, 1969
 Time limit for registration of birth & death
3.Sample registration system (SRS)
 Dual record system, consisting of continuous
enumeration of births & deaths by an enumerator & an
independent survey every 6 months by an investigator –
 Covers the entire country, more reliable
4. Notification of diseases
 International Health Regulations (IHR) – Cholera,
Plague, Yellow fever etc
 Can identify outbreak
 Even extended to NCDs
Drawbacks :
 Covers only a small part of total sickness in community
 Under reporting
 Atypical & subclinical cases
 Lack of facilities for diagnosis in rural areas
5. Hospital records
6. Disease registers
 Cases can be followed up
 Frequency, duration, CFR, survival
7. Record linkage
 Birth, immunization, marriage, death, hospital admission &
 Twin studies, chronic disease, genetics etc
8. Epidemiological surveillance
Endemic diseases control & eradication
programmes – malaria, TB, Leprosy
9. Other health service records
Health centers, polyclinics, PP, diabetic & HTN clinics
Records usually kept for administrative purposes
rather than for monitoring
10. Environmental health data
Pollution, industrial toxicants, harmful food additives
Can identify & quantify factors causing disease
11. Health manpower statistics
12. Population surveys – health survey
a) Survey to evaluate health status
b) Survey to investigate factors affecting health &
c) Surveys relating to administration of health services
Survey methods:
a) Health interview (face to face) survey
b) Health examination survey
c) Health records survey
d) Mailed questionnaire survey
13. Other routine statistics related to health
Demographic – population density, movement,
education level
b) Economic – sales of drugs, per capita income
c) Social security schemes – medical insurance,
sickness, absence & disability benefits rates
14. Non – quantifiable information
Public attitudes, information on health policies &
legislations, procedure, technology etc