COP /CMP 7: Organisational structure of the Conference

COP /CMP 7: Organisational
structure of the Conference
Dr S Mgquba
Structure of the presentation
The KP
Convention Bodies
Principles of the Convention
Groupings of the Convention
History of the COPs
Rio 1992, WSSD 1: Three conventions are adopted
The CCD (Desertification)
The UNFCCC (Climate Change)
The CBD (Biological Diversity)
• Objective of the UNFCCC
“stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a
level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with
the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time
frame that allows ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to
ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic
development to proceed in a sustainable manner”.
Major decisions
COP1, 1995
COP2, 1996
Berlin, Germany
The Berlin Mandate
Geneva, Switzerland
COP3, 1997
COP4, 1998
COP5, 1999
Kyoto, Japan
The Kyoto Protocol
Buenos Aires, Argentina
The Buenos Aires Plan of Action
Bonn, Germany
COP6, 2000
The Hague, Netherlands
COP7, 2001
Marrakesh, Morocco
COP8, 2002
COP9, 2003
New Delhi, India
The Delhi Declaration (SD)
Milan, Italy
COP10, 2004
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Marrakesh Accords
UNFCCC........ cont
CMP1, 2005
Montreal, Canada
CMP2, 2006
Nairobi, Kenya
CMP3, 2007
Bali, Indonesia
CMP4, 2008
Poznan, Poland
The MOP sits for the first
time...CMP decisions
Bali Road Map (AWG–LCA is
mandated )
Advancing the Bali Road Map
CMP5, 2009
Copenhagen, Denmark
The Copenhagen Accord
CMP6, 2010
Cancun, Mexico
The Cancun Agreements
CMP7, 2011
Durban, South Africa
The Kyoto Protocol
• COP 1 decided that the commitments in terms of the
UNFCCC were inadequate and
• Mandated the initiation of a process to negotiate a protocol
or other legal instrument containing commitments for Annex
1 countries
• This process culminated in the adoption of the Kyoto
Protocol at COP 3 (1997) of the UNFCCC in Japan
• The Protocol is therefore primarily concerned with
addressing the commitments of Annex 1 Parties,
• Through the imposition of targets and mechanisms and/ or
obligations for achieving these targets (such as policies and
measures and flexible mechanisms).
Bodies of the conv.
The Conference of the Parties (COP): the “supreme body” of the Convention, that
is, its highest decision-making authority.
The meeting of the Parties (CMP): the Conference of the Parties serves as the
meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP). The CMP meets during the
same period as the COP.
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the SBSTA’s
task is to provide the COP with advice on scientific, technological and
methodological matters.
The Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI). These bodies give advice to the
COP and each has a specific mandate. The SBI gives advice to the COP on all
matters concerning the implementation of the Convention.
Ad-hoc Working Group on further commitments for Annex I Parties under the
Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP): Parties to the Kyoto Protocol initiated a process to
consider further commitments by Annex I Parties for the period beyond 2012.
Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention
(AWG-LCA): Road Map which consists of a number of forward-looking decisions
that represent the various tracks that are essential to strengthening international
action on climate change.
Bodies of the conv. CMP 7
COP 17
Highest bodies, Once a year
SBI 35
Twice a year
AWG-KP 16-4
4 times a year
AWG-LCA 14-4
How do these bodies function
Obligations of the Parties and Principles of the Convention
The primary means of addressing these principles is the division of countries into
two broad groups under the Kyoto Protocol:
those listed in Annex I (“Annex I Parties”) which are mainly developed countries
and major polluters and
those not listed in Annex I (referred to as “non-Annex I Parties”) which are
primarily developing countries.
Article 4 of the Conv: contains the commitments which apply to all Parties. The
list of commitments is qualified by the chapeau that states that Parties must take
into account
“their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and
their specific national and regional developmental priorities, objectives and
In terms of Article 4 all countries that have ratified the UNFCCC are required to:
develop, update and publish national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources
and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases (except those listed in the Montreal Protocol);
formulate, implement and update national and regional programmes containing measures
to mitigate climate change;
promote and co-operate in the development and transfer of technology that controls,
reduces or prevents anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases;
promote sustainable management, conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs
of greenhouse gases;
co-operate in preparing for the adaptation to the impacts of climate change;
take climate change considerations into account where feasible, in relevant social,
economic and environmental policies and actions with a view to minimizing adverse effects
on the economy, public health and the quality of the environment;
promote and co-operate in research;
promote and co-operate in the timeous and transparent exchange of information, including
scientific technological and socio economic and legal information;
promote and co-operate in education, training and public awareness and to
encourage the widest participation in this process; and
report to the Conference of the Parties (COP).
Country divisions
There are 198 countries under the Convention and 194 under the Protocol
These countries are further grouped into A1 and NA1, which are further grouped
into categories either by location, economic standing.
The biggest current issue that is a “bone of contention” in climate negotiations is
the “developing economies”
Annex 1 Countries
Other Groupings that
influence UNFCCC
Annex 2
Non- Annex 1 (G77&China)
currently 138 countries
AFRICA (Regional groups, e.g.
LDCs (Asia, Afr, Latin America)
G8 + 5
South Africa’s positioning with the climate
multilateral regime
• Africa Group………might be some “tensions”, RSA not
trusted .
• G4……….strong economy interests, specially the
closing the gap with the Chinese
• LDC group……RSA not allowed
• G8, EU, JUSCANZ – only bilateral cooperation.
• OPEC……Not very good ‘friends’ especially Nigeria
• OECD……… allowed at observer level.