General Psychology Gender Roles Assignment • What makes a person Male/Female – Social Learning? • What does is mean to be Male/Female in your family. Man of the house/Woman of the house? • Is there a certain way to raise a child to make them more masculine or feminine? • Who is better communicator, friend, etc… • Can men and women be friends? Gender and Social Communication Women communicate more than men: more time with friends more text messages longer phone calls However, men and women speak about the same number of words per day. What fills in the extra time on those longer phone calls? Maybe…. listening? Men and women use communication differently. Women seek input and Men state their opinions explore relationships. and solutions . Men speak about things and Women speak about people and feelings. actions. Gender and Social Connectedness Both men and women turn to women when they want someone to talk to, seeking the “tend and befriend” response or better listening. In general, women change roommates more often. Women tend to have stronger ties to friends and family. Women are often more involved with religion. The Biology of Gender What biologically makes us male or female? It begins with whether our 23rd pair of chromosomes looks like XX (female) or Xy (male). Testes develop, and at seven weeks, the testes produce a flood of testosterone. Hormones then guide the development of external sex organs. Brain Differences During the fourth and fifth month of pregnancy, sex hormones bathe the fetal brain. In adulthood, women have thicker areas in a part of the frontal lobes that help with verbal fluency. There are also differences in the amygdala, hippocampus, and ratio of cell bodies to axons. The Nurture side of Gender Roles: The Influence of Culture Gender role: the behaviors expected of people related to their identity as men and women Gender identity: one’s sense of whether one is male and female, including a sense of what it means to be that gender Does culture define which behaviors fill a gender role? Or do the roles affect culture? Gender roles and culture: is differentiation a good thing? If it’s man’s job to get the high paying employment, If it’s women’s work to take care of the kids and home, does that prevent conflict, and help culture stay stable, because roles are clear? or is equality worth having some conflict and uncertainty? Culture Influence on Gender Role Development Or is it instinct? Social learning theory: we learn gender role behavior by imitation, and by rewards and punishments that shape our behavior Gender schemas: the cognitive frameworks for developing concepts of “male” and “female”; these frameworks guide our observations Gender typing: the instinct which drives some children to fit into traditional gender roles Influences on Who You’ve Become Beyond Biopsychosocial Influences: CHOICE Is our behavior and identity rigidly determined by our combination of nature/genes and nurture/experience? Even if free will is an illusion, it would seem that we can make choices that override our genetic influences, that differ from cultural norms, and that do not fit our environment. We can even choose to directly alter culture, environment, and even genes.