Step Up To: Psychology

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Step Up To:
Psychology
John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
&
Jason S. Spiegelman, M.A., ABD
From: Hockenbury &
Hockenbury
Discovering Psychology 5e
Worth Publishers (2010)
Chapter 5: Learning
Operant Conditioning: Associating
Behaviors and Consequences
Contemporary
Views of Classical
Conditioning
Classical
Conditioning:
Associating
Stimuli
Contemporary
Views of Operant
Conditioning
Observational
Learning:
Imitating the
Actions of Others
Classical Conditioning:
Associating Stimuli
500
400
300
200
100
Contemporary Views of
Classical Conditioning
500
400
300
200
100
Operant Conditioning:
Associating Behaviors
and Consequences
500
400
300
200
100
Contemporary
Views of Operant
Conditioning
500
400
300
200
100
Observational Learning:
Imitating the Actions of
Others
500
400
300
200
100
1. Which of the following is not one of the
different types of learning discussed in
the chapter on Learning ?
•
•
•
•
A) Operant conditioning
B) Observational learning
C) Classical conditioning
D) Experiential conditioning
2. In Pavlov’s experiment the food
was the:
•
•
•
•
A) unconditioned stimulus.
B) unconditioned response.
C) conditioned stimulus.
D) conditioned response.
3. Jimmy was frightened by a barking
dog. For the next few months, he
was afraid of all dogs. This is an
example of:
• A) stimulus discrimination.
B) stimulus generalization.
• C) unconditioned response.
• D) unconditioned stimulus.
4. Jason was involved in a bad car accident
on the highway. Ever since then, he
always gets the “chills” when he drives
past that one location. In classical
conditioning, this is a(n):
• A) conditioned emotional
response.
• B) higher order stimulus.
• C) neutral stimulus.
• D) extinguished emotional
response
5. Watson’s experiment with Little
Albert was criticized because:
• A) it is unethical to cause such
distress to an infant.
• B) Little Albert died as a result.
• C) Watson did not obtain permission
from the parents.
• D) he was unable to condition a
lasting fear response.
6. More recent investigations into the
process of classical conditioning
suggest that it involves:
•
•
•
•
A) pairing of stimulus and response.
B) learning how events are related.
C) rewarding positive behavior.
D) the use of all the senses.
7. Marla got a batch of bad shrimp at
her favorite restaurant one evening,
and thereafter never ate shrimp
again. This is an example of:
•
•
•
•
A) the Rescorla effect.
B) unconditioned agustia.
C) placebo response.
D) taste aversion.
8. According to John Garcia human beings
have a greater tendency to be afraid of
dangerous, potentially harmful stimuli
due to:
•
•
•
•
A) primal conditioning.
B) arachnophobia.
C) biological preparedness.
D) stimulus priming.
9. According to the _____ perspective,
mental processes as well as external
events are an important component
in the learning of new behaviors.
•
•
•
•
A) evolutionary
B) cognitive
C) biological
D) analytic
10. Cognitive processes in classical
conditioning have been demonstrated
by Robert Rescorla when:
• A) light was used instead of tones.
• B) verbal instruction increased the
effectiveness of the CS.
• C) the CS was too complex and
confusing.
• D) tones did not predict the coming
of the UCS.
11. The “Law of Effect” which addresses the
likelihood of repeating a behavior
based on the consequences of that
action, was proposed by:
•
•
•
•
A) Edward L. Thorndike.
B) John B. Watson.
C) Albert Bandura.
D) Ivan Pavlov.
12. Jonah’s parents are trying to teach him to
use the bathroom. They first reward him
for saying “potty,” then only for walking to
the bathroom, and finally only after he
uses the toilet. This is an example of:
•
•
•
•
A) negative punishment.
B) fixed interval reinforcement.
C) shaping.
D) negative reinforcement.
13. Hailey’s parents are using punishment
by _________ when they take her dolls
away from her for pulling her little
sister’s hair.
•
•
•
•
A) application.
B) hierarchy.
C) operant.
D) removal.
14. A standard Las Vegas or Atlantic City slot
machine operates on which of the
following schedules of partial
reinforcement?
•
•
•
•
A) Fixed Interval
B) Variable Interval
C) Fixed Ratio
D) Variable Ratio
15. The best time to deliver a positive
reinforcer is:
• A) every time the behavior occurs for
as long as you want it to continue.
• B) during the preferred behavior.
• C) immediately after the preferred
behavior occurs.
• D) immediately after explaining the
relationship to the preferred behavior.
16. Martin Seligman demonstrated the
concept of _________ by exposing
dogs to electrical shocks that they
were unable to control or stop.
•
•
•
•
A) latent learning
B) vicarious learning
C) cognitive maps
D) learned helplessness
17. Because you have a ________ map of
your own home you should be able to
get to the kitchen to get a glass of milk
at night without turning on the lights.
•
•
•
•
A) conditional
B) cognitive
C) fixed
D) latent
18. Through his experiments running rats
through mazes, Edward Tolman
observed that sometimes learning is
not immediately demonstrated in
overt behavior. This is called:
•
•
•
•
A) vicarious learning.
B) delay of response.
C) higher-order learning.
D) latent learning.
19. According to research into academic
learned helplessness, what is the first step
in helping students develop a sense of
mastery over their academic demands?
• A) seeking knowledge about course
requirements and setting goals
• B) acquiring the services of a tutor
• C) seeking out extra credit chances
• D) forming study groups
20. Keller and Marian Breland observed that some
animals resisted being taught certain
behaviors, and they posited that __________
could interfere with operant conditioning.
•
•
•
•
A) operant noise
B) instinctive drift
C) negative intervals
D) learned latents
21. Albert Bandura contends that most
human behavior:
• A) is shaped through repeated trial-anderror.
• B) is acquired through observational
learning.
• C) is reinforced through positive
conditioning.
• D) is planned out and not accidental.
22. Which of the following is not one of
the crucial cognitive processes
involved in imitating a behavior
according to Albert Bandura?
•
•
•
•
A) attention
B) reinforcement
C) memory
D) motivation
23. Research examining the effect of
violence on television has found all but
which of the following?
• A) Those who watch more violence on TV
as children are three times as likely to be
convicted of a crime
• B) Violence on TV is correlated with violent
behaviors in the classroom
• C) More than 60% of TV programs
contained violent depictions
• D) Violence on TV increases violence in
girls more than it does in boys
24. Using the principles of observational learning,
many countries have television programs that
promote healthy behaviors and social change.
Which of the following is not an example of such
programming?
• A) Shows that encourage family planning
in Brazil, India, and Tanzania
• B) Shows that promote HIV/AIDS
prevention in Peru and Kenya
• C) Shows that promote female economic
independence in China
• D) Shows that promote Torah
observance in Israel
25. What have researchers determined
about the correlation of TV viewing and
imitative behavior?
• A) We can decrease violence in our
society if we decrease the amount of
violence on TV.
• B) We can increase pro-social behavior
if we increase the amount of it on TV.
• C) None of the above is true; TV
doesn’t change the way people act.
• D) All of the above are true.
Stop here, or continue as a review
1. Which of the following is not one of the
different types of learning discussed in
the chapter on Learning ?
•
•
•
•
A) Operant conditioning
B) Observational learning
C) Classical conditioning
D) Experiential conditioning
2. In Pavlov’s experiment, the food
was the:
•
•
•
•
A) unconditioned stimulus.
B) unconditioned response.
C) conditioned stimulus.
D) conditioned response.
3. Jimmy was frightened by a barking dog.
For the next few months, he was afraid
of all dogs. This is an example of:
•
•
•
•
A) stimulus discrimination.
B) stimulus generalization.
C) unconditioned response.
D) unconditioned stimulus.
4. Jason was involved in a bad car accident
on the highway. Ever since then, he
always gets the “chills” when he drives
past that one location. In classical
conditioning, this is a(n):
• A) conditioned emotional
response.
• B) higher order stimulus.
• C) neutral stimulus.
• D) extinguished emotional
response
5. Watson’s experiment with Little
Albert was criticized because:
• A) it is unethical to cause such
distress to an infant.
• B) Little Albert died as a result.
• C) Watson did not obtain permission
from the parents.
• D) he was unable to condition a
lasting fear response.
6. More recent investigations into the
process of classical conditioning
suggest that it involves:
•
•
•
•
A) pairing of stimulus and response.
B) learning how events are related.
C) rewarding positive behavior.
D) the use of all the senses.
7. Marla got a batch of bad shrimp at
her favorite restaurant one evening,
and thereafter never ate shrimp
again. This is an example of:
•
•
•
•
A) the Rescorla effect.
B) unconditioned agustia.
C) placebo response.
D) taste aversion.
8. According to John Garcia, human beings
have a greater tendency to be afraid of
dangerous, potentially harmful stimuli
due to:
•
•
•
•
A) primal conditioning.
B) arachnophobia.
C) biological preparedness.
D) stimulus priming.
9. According to the _____ perspective,
mental processes as well as external
events are an important component
in the learning of new behaviors.
•
•
•
•
A) evolutionary
B) cognitive
C) biological
D) analytic
10. Cognitive processes in classical
conditioning have been demonstrated
by Robert Rescorla when:
• A) light was used instead of tones.
• B) verbal instruction increased the
effectiveness of the CS.
• C) the CS was too complex and
confusing.
• D) tones did not predict the coming
of the UCS.
11. The “Law of Effect,” which addresses the
likelihood of repeating a behavior
based on the consequences of that
action, was proposed by:
•
•
•
•
A) Edward L. Thorndike.
B) John B. Watson.
C) Albert Bandura.
D) Ivan Pavlov.
12. Jonah’s parents are trying to teach him to
use the bathroom. They first reward him
for saying “potty,” then only for walking to
the bathroom, and finally only after he
uses the toilet. This is an example of:
•
•
•
•
A) negative punishment.
B) fixed interval reinforcement.
C) shaping.
D) negative reinforcement.
13. Hailey’s parents are using punishment
by ________ when they take her dolls
away from her for pulling her little
sister’s hair.
•
•
•
•
A) application.
B) hierarchy.
C) operant.
D) removal.
14. A standard Las Vegas or Atlantic City slot
machine operates on which of the
following schedules of partial
reinforcement?
•
•
•
•
A) Fixed Interval
B) Variable Interval
C) Fixed Ratio
D) Variable Ratio
15. The best time to deliver a positive
reinforcer is:
• A) every time the behavior occurs for
as long as you want it to continue.
• B) during the preferred behavior.
• C) immediately after the preferred
behavior occurs.
• D) immediately after explaining the
relationship to the preferred behavior.
16. Martin Seligman demonstrated the
concept of _________ by exposing
dogs to electrical shocks that they
were unable to control or stop.
•
•
•
•
A) latent learning
B) vicarious learning
C) cognitive maps
D) learned helplessness
17. Because you have a ________ map of
your own home, you should be able to
get to the kitchen to get a glass of milk
at night without turning on the lights.
•
•
•
•
A) conditional
B) cognitive
C) fixed
D) latent
18. Through his experiments running rats
through mazes, Edward Tolman
observed that sometimes learning is
not immediately demonstrated in
overt behavior. This is called:
•
•
•
•
A) vicarious learning.
B) delay of response.
C) higher-order learning.
D) latent learning.
19. According to research into academic
learned helplessness, what is the first step
in helping students develop a sense of
mastery over their academic demands?
• A) Seeking knowledge about course
requirements and setting goals.
• B) Acquiring the services of a tutor.
• C) Seeking out extra credit chances.
• D) Forming study groups.
20. Keller and Marian Breland observed that some
animals resisted being taught certain
behaviors, and they posited that __________
could interfere with operant conditioning.
•
•
•
•
A) operant noise
B) instinctive drift
C) negative intervals
D) learned latents
21. Albert Bandura contends that most
human behavior:
• A) is shaped through repeated trialand-error.
• B) is acquired through observational
learning.
• C) is reinforced through positive
conditioning.
• D) is planned out and not accidental.
22. Which of the following is not one of
the crucial cognitive processes
involved in imitating a behavior
according to Albert Bandura?
•
•
•
•
A) attention
B) reinforcement
C) memory
D) motivation
23. Research examining the effect of
violence on television has found all but
which of the following?
• A) Those who watch more violence on TV
as children are three times as likely to be
convicted of a crime
• B) Violence on TV is correlated with violent
behaviors in the classroom
• C) More than 60% of TV programs
contained violent depictions
• D) Violence on TV increases violence in
girls more than it does in boys
24. Using the principles of observational learning,
many countries have television programs that
promote healthy behaviors and social change.
Which of the following is not an example of such
programming?
• A) Shows that encourage family planning
in Brazil, India, and Tanzania
• B) Shows that promote HIV/AIDS
prevention in Peru and Kenya
• C) Shows that promote female economic
independence in China
• D) Shows that promote Torah observance
in Israel
25. What have researchers determined
about the correlation of TV viewing and
imitative behavior?
• A) We can decrease violence in our
society if we decrease the amount of
violence on TV.
• B) We can increase pro-social behavior
if we increase the amount of it on TV.
• C) None of the above is true; TV
doesn’t change the way people act.
• D) All of the above are true.
Acknowledgments
• Step Up Created by:
John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
• Questions written by:
Jason S. Spiegelman, M.A., ABD
• Based on Discovering
Psychology 5e by
Hockenbury & Hockenbury
• Published by Worth
Publishers, 2010
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
D
A
B
A
A
B
D
C
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
B
D
A
C
D
D
C
D
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
B
D
A
B
B
B
D
D
25. A
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