Culture and Leadership Leadership Theories Great Man Theory Leaders are born not made. Great leaders will emerge when there is a great need. Trait Theory > Based on a combination genetics and socialization, each of us develops a unique set of traits. > Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. According to this perspective, people who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. Kurt * Leadership Theory The first Psychological leadership theory. In 1939, a group of researchers led by Kurt Lewin identified three styles of leadership. In the study, schoolchildren were assigned to one of three groups with an authoritarian, democratic or laissez-fair leader. The children were then led in an arts and crafts project while researchers observed the behavior of children in response to the different styles of leadership. Authoritarian (Autocratic) Leaders Authoritarian leaders provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. There is also a clear division between the leader and the followers. Authoritarian leaders make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group. Participative (Democratic) leadership Participative leadership is generally the most effective leadership style. Democratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members. In Lewin’s study, children in this group were less productive than the members of the authoritarian group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality. Delagative (Laissez-fair) Leadership Delegative leaders were the least productive of all three groups. The children in this group also made more demands on the leader, showed little cooperation and were unable to work independently. Delegative leaders offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to group members. While this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise, it often leads to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation. Managerial Grid Model Introduced by Blake and Mouton in 1964, this is a behavioral leadership model originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production Leadership Theories Participative Leadership > Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions. > People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making. > Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone. It was the great psychologist, Rensis Likert, who introduced this leadership concept in 1967 Likert’s Leadership Styles Rensis Likert (1903-1081) believed that good leadership stems from a climate and system of management that creates an effective organization. He examined different types of organizations and leadership styles, and he asserted that to achieve maximum profitability, good labor relations and high productivity, every organization must make optimum use of their human assets. Four Systems of Management System 1 - Exploitive Authoritative System 2 - Benevolent Authoritative System 3 - Consultative System 4 - Participative Exploitive Authoritative Decisions are imposed on subordinates, where motivation is characterized by threats, where high levels of management have great responsibilities but lower levels have virtually none, where there is very little communication and no joint teamwork. Benevolent Authoritative Leadership is by a condescending form of master-servant trust, where motivation is mainly by rewards, where managerial personnel feel responsibility but lower levels do not, where there is little communication and relatively little teamwork. Consultative Leadership is by superiors who have substantial but not complete trust in their subordinates, where motivation is by rewards and some involvement, where a high proportion of personnel, especially those at the higher levels feel responsibility for achieving organization goals, where there is some communication (both vertical and horizontal) and a moderate amount of teamwork. Participative According to Likert, the optimum solution, where leadership is by superiors who have; complete confidence in their subordinates, where motivation is by economic rewards based on goals which have been set in participation, where personnel at all levels feel real responsibility for the organizational goals, where there is much communication, and a substantial amount of cooperative teamwork. More Leadership Theories Situational Leadership The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors. - Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership - Vroom and Yetton’s Normative Model - House’s Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Leadership Theories Contingency Theories The leader’s ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader’s preferred style, the capabilities and behaviors of followers and also various other situational factors. - Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory - Cognitive Resource Theory - Strategic Contingencies Theory Leadership Theories Transactional Leadership > People are motivated by reward and punishment. > Social systems work best with a clear chain of command. > When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager. > The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do. - Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leadership Theories Leaders as change agents. Transformational theory has been one of the most highly utilized leadership theories of the past 30 years, within both organizational research and practice. In addition, transformational theory is useful as it includes a full range of leadership styles that cover transformational, constructive transactional and passive-avoidant leadership. Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership > People will follow a person who inspires them. A person with vision and passion can achieve great things. > The way to get things done is by infecting followers with enthusiasm and energy. - Bass’ Transformational Leadership Theory - Burns’ Transformational Leadership Theory - Kouzes and Posner’s Leadership Participation Inventory A Case for Transformational Leadership Gill, Levine & Pitt (1998) believe that the ‘new, postbureaucratic organization’ will require transformational leadership that enables flexibility, horizontal networks, high-trust relationships, adaptability to change and uncertainty, innovation and empowerment of employees. Gill et al. propose that such leadership will lead to the necessary reinvention of organizational cultures into forms that will meet the new organizational requirements for success. Recapping Leadership Without the Fancy Theoretical Jargon Models of Leadership Directive/Supportive Behavior model Directive vs. nondirective leaders Supportive vs. non-supportive leaders Supportive Directive NonDirective Non-Supportive Michael Maccoby: Into the 21st Century The Gamesman Model (Michael Maccoby) From The Gamesman: The New Corporate Leaders (1976) and The Leaders We Need: And What Makes Us Follow (2007) Four Leadership Styles The Spectator The Technician The Jungle Fighter The Gamesman Michael Maccoby is a colorful character who is a globally recognized expert on leadership who for 35 years. He has advised leaders in businesses, governments, unions, universities and non profit organizations in more then 30 countries. He is president of the Maccoby Group in Washington, D.C. which offers consulting, coaching, research and leadership workshops. He has a PhD from Harvard University, where he directed the Program on Technology, Public Policy and Human Development from 1978-90. He graduated from The Mexican Institute of Psychoanalysis where he studied under Erich Fromm, the famous Psychoanalyst.