Parapsychology Putting ESP to Experimental Test Why do they Study? • Unsatisfied hunger for mystery or wonderment • Experiencing something magical – Founding US Parapsychologist were searching for a scientific explanation for the meaning of Russia after the fall of the USSR many life & life after death people became aware of the unexplained – Mostly because they lost their & ESP. Scientist believed they were religious faith Compensating for the psychological discomfort of the time Keep an Open Mind • Some things we assume to be true – Life after death – The existence of god – The reality of another’s love • Retain a humble sense of wonder regarding life’s untestable mysteries Skepticism • Parapsychologist are those people who choose to study paranormal phenomena • They put this phenomena to the experimental test is hope of proving that ESP exists • The biggest reason why people questions it is validity. If people have this ability why Don’t more of them win the Lottery! Experiments with ESP • Despite many claims of proven experiments a reproducible ESP phenomenon has never been discovered – No person has ever come forward who can convincingly demonstrate psychic ability – “the best available evidence does not support the contention that these phenomena exist” • National Research Council investigation of ESP CIA did 10 yrs. & 10 mill. Spent on military studies of psychic spies their program was scrapped. Scientific Attitude on ESP • Isolation of the sender the • Science answers to these receiver in separate shielded claims is to test them to see if they are true & is it chambers – 11 studies repeatable • 25% of the receivers accurately • Parapsychologist continue beat chance to attempt to prove just • 32% was the margin that was that significantly needed for proof • The question then becomes has • Daryl Bem & Charles a reliable way to test ESP been Honorton came up with discovered the ganzfeld procedure Skepticism 2 • The procedure was tested again & others found that “it does not at present offer a replicable method for producing ESP in a laboratory. • Remember that scientific attitude involves skeptical but open minded scrutiny of competing ideas – Science is open to nature’s occasional surprises Studies & Debate Cont.