We are still addressing the question of HOW we should be moral What is the opposite of Utilitarianism? Immanuel Kant 1724 - 1804, German philosopher Deontology An approach to ethics that judges the morality of an action based on the rightness or wrongness of the action itself, not on the consequence of the action. The morality of the action is also based on a strong sense of duty and following rules. What does Kant say? • In order to act in a morally correct way, people must act from duty. • The consequences of an action don’t make it right or wrong. Rather, it is the motive of the person doing the action, and the action itself that determines whether it is morally right. Why can’t the consequences of an action tell us whether it is right or wrong? What are some faults/shortcomings of utilitarianism? So how do we know whether an action is moral according to Deontology? The Categorical Imperative The Categorical Imperative 3-Part Test: 1. 2. 3. "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law without contradiction." "Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end” "Therefore, every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends." What does this mean? 1. Only do things that you wish everyone else in the world to do too 2. Don’t take advantage of other people How is Deontology Different from Utilitarianism? Think of the major differences between the two philosophies. Are you a Utilitarian or Deontologist? In the following scenarios, do you agree or disagree with the statement? Why do you think your answer is moral? A family of five people runs to the door of your house and says they need protecting because a crazy man is trying to kill them. You hide them in the house. Three minutes later, the crazy man asks if the family is hidden in your ask. What do you say? You graduated from Sun Yat-sen University with a degree in Finance. But…you’re lazy and just want to work part-time as a 饺子 maker. Is it OK to work below your capabilities and take a job that doesn’t use all your talents and skills? It is OK to commit suicide. It is OK to use animals in factories to test products It is absolutely necessary to help people in need. If there are starving people in Africa, it is your moral obligation to send money or supplies. Peter Singer Australian philosopher, teaching at Princeton University Discussion Question Do you think that animals deserve the same consideration as humans? Is it our moral responsibility to treat animals in such a way as to not cause any pain?