Ch 3.3 The Commercial North MAIN IDEA The Northern colonies develop a predominately urban society based on commerce and trade. WHY IT MATTERS NOW Coastal cities in New England continue to engage in trade. Diverse Economy • Small farms due to rocky soil and cold winters. • Middle colonies raise livestock, crops; export surplus. • Mid-1700’s merchants rule economy. Urban Life • Growth of trade leads to port cities. -Some trade as far as CA. -New York and Boston. • Philadelphia. -second largest city in British empire. -has urban plan. Influx of Immigrants • Germans, ScotIrish, Dutch, and Jews. • Encounter prejudice, clash with frontier Native Amer. Slavery in the North • Less in then in the South. -Prejudice exists. • Slaves have some legal rights, but restricted. Women in Northern Society • Extensive work, but few legal rights. • Only single women and windows can own businesses. • Wives submit to husbands. Salem Witch Trials, 1692 • Accusations led to hysteria, trials, and executions. • Victims. -Independent women, rich. -150 imprisoned. -29 convicted. -19 women/ 5 men hung. -1 crushed, 5 died in jail. The Enlightenment • Movement in 1700s emphasizing reason and observation. -use of reason and science to explain world. -spread quickly through books and pamphlets. -John Locke. • Colonial leaders embrace ideas. -Benjamin Franklin. The Great Awakening • Religious revival of the 1730s and 1740s. • Puritan membership decline. • Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. -man’s sinful, must seek God’s mercy. -Different groups join churches. Effects of Both Movements • Interest in learning, colleges found. • Question authority of both church and state. -Stress individual’s importance. -atmosphere lead to American Rev.