Powerpoint - Food Science and Human Nutrition

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Nutrition Basics
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
The Zone Diet
How Many “Sugars?”
INGREDIENTS: ROLLED OATS, HIGH MALTOSE CORN SYRUP,
SUGAR, HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP, CRISP RICE, WHEAT
FLAKES, PALM KERNEL OIL, DEGERMED YELLOW CORN MEAL,
MALT, FRUCTOSE, CANOLA OIL, YOGURT POWDER, CORN
BRAN, MALTODEXTRIN, CALCIUM CARBONATE, NONFAT MILK,
SOY LECITHIN, SALT, HONEY, RED 40 LAKE AND OTHER
COLOR ADDED, NATURAL FLAVOR, DRIED STRAWBERRIES,
CITRIC ACID, BAKING SODA, MIXED TOCOPHEROLS ADDED TO
RETAIN FRESHNESS, SUNFLOWER MEAL, PEANUT FLOUR,
ALMOND FLOUR
Simple Carbohydrates
Common types:
– White/brown sugar
– Honey/Molasses
– Corn Syrup
Found in processed foods:
– Fructose, sucrose, glucose,
maltose
– High fructose corn syrup
Complex Carbohydrates
• Starches
– Branching chains of simple sugar (glucose)
– Found in many foods
How Many “Complex
Carbs?”
INGREDIENTS: ROLLED OATS, HIGH MALTOSE CORN SYRUP, SUGAR,
HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP, CRISP RICE, WHEAT FLAKES, PALM
KERNEL OIL, DEGERMED YELLOW CORN MEAL, MALT, FRUCTOSE,
CANOLA OIL, YOGURT POWDER, CORN BRAN, MALTODEXTRIN,
CALCIUM CARBONATE, NONFAT MILK, SOY LECITHIN, SALT, HONEY, RED
40 LAKE AND OTHER COLOR ADDED, NATURAL FLAVOR, DRIED
STRAWBERRIES, CITRIC ACID, BAKING SODA, MIXED TOCOPHEROLS
ADDED TO RETAIN FRESHNESS, SUNFLOWER MEAL, PEANUT FLOUR,
ALMOND FLOUR
Sugars vs. Starches
• What’s the difference?
– Sugars are rapidly digested and absorbed
• Quick energy
– Starches are more filling and take longer to
digest
• More energy, last longer
• Both become glucose = “Blood Sugar”
Fiber
• Fiber is plant material that humans are
unable to digest.
– Recommended 25-30 grams of Fiber per day
• Two Types of Fiber
– Soluble
– Insoluble
Soluble Fiber
• Absorbs liquid
• Lowers cholesterol levels
• In fruits and vegetables
• Oats
• Psyllium:
– Found in Metamucil,
Fiberall, Konsyl
Soluble Fiber
Insoluble Fiber
• Functions to:
– Add bulk
– Soften stools
• Found in:
– Fruits and vegetables
– Whole grains
– Nuts and seeds
What are whole grains?
• Entire seed of a plant
– bran, germ, and endosperm
• Bran + germ = 25% of the
grain’s protein and contains
seventeen key nutrients
• Source of fiber and starch
Whole Grains Council Image
White vs Wheat?
Whole wheat bread contains more nutrients
Whole wheat bread is more filling and takes
longer to digest
Going Whole Grain
• Pastas:
– Start with thinner
shapes
– Watch for overcooking
– Pair it with heartier
sauces
– Experiment with
different brands
How much should you eat?
• 50-60% of daily calories from
carbohydrate
• Focus on complex carbohydrates
• Use simple carbs in moderation
Carbohydrate Summary
• Simple vs Complex Carbohydrates
• Fiber
– Insoluble vs Soluble
• Whole Grains
– Bran, germ, endosperm
• 50-60% of calories
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