Chapter 14

advertisement
Graphics Are Important in Technical
Communication Because They Can:
• Help you communicate information that is difficult to
communicate with words
• Help you clarify and emphasize information
• Catch the reader's attention and interest
• Help nonnative speakers of English understand the
information
• Help communicate information to multiple audiences
with different interests, aptitudes, and reading habits
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
1
Graphics Offer Benefits That Words
Alone Cannot:
• Graphics are almost indispensable in demonstrating
logical and numerical relationships.
• Graphics can communicate spatial information more
effectively than words alone.
• Graphics can communicate steps in a process more
effectively than words alone.
• Graphics can save space.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
2
Characteristics of an
Effective Graphic
• A graphic should have a purpose.
• A graphic should be honest.
• A graphic should be simple and uncluttered.
• A graphic should present a manageable amount of
information.
• A graphic should meet the reader's format
expectations.
• A graphic should be clearly labeled.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
3
Integrating Graphics and Text
• Place the graphic in an appropriate location.
• Introduce the graphic in the text.
• Explain the graphic in the text.
• Make the graphic clearly visible.
• Make the graphic accessible.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
4
Four Aspects
of the Document to Consider as You
Plan Graphics
• Audience
• Purpose
• The kind of information you want to communicate
• Physical conditions
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
5
Principles of Using Color in Graphics
and Page Design
• Use color to emphasize particular items.
• Use color to create patterns.
• Take advantage of any symbolic meanings colors
may already have.
• Use contrast effectively.
• Don't overdo it.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
6
Basic Kinds of Graphics Used to
Display Numerical Values
• Tables
• Bar graphs
• Pictographs
• Line graphs
• Pie charts
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
7
Creating Effective Tables and Graphs
• Indicate the units of measure.
• List the items being compared.
• Arrange the data clearly and logically.
• Do the math.
• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.
• Use tick marks—marks along the axis— or grid lines
to signal the amounts.
• If you did not generate the information yourself,
indicate your source.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
8
Creating Effective Pie Charts
• Restrict the number of slices to six or seven.
• Begin with the largest slice at the top and work
clockwise in decreasing-size order, unless you have a
good reason to arrange them otherwise.
• Include a miscellaneous slice for very small quantities
that would make the chart unclear.
• Label the slices (horizontally, not radially) inside the
slice, if space permits.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
9
Creating Effective Pie Charts (cont.)
• To emphasize one slice, use a bright, contrasting
color or separate the slice from the pie.
• Check to see that your software follows the
appropriate guidelines for pie charts.
• Don't overdo fill patterns.
• Check that your percentages add up to 100.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
10
Graphics Used to Illustrate Visual and
Spatial Characteristics
• Photographs
• Screen shots
• Line drawings
• Maps
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
11
Presenting Photographs Effectively
• Eliminate extraneous background clutter that can
distract your reader.
• Do not electronically manipulate the photograph.
• Help the reader understand the perspective.
• If appropriate, include some common object, such as
a coin or a ruler, in the photograph to give readers a
sense of scale.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
12
Three Advantages of Line Drawings
over Photographs
• Line drawings can focus the reader's attention on
desired information better than a photograph can.
• Line drawings can highlight information that might be
obscured by bad lighting or a bad angle in a
photograph.
• Line drawings are sometimes easier for readers to
understand than photographs are.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
13
Creating Effective Graphics for
Multicultural Readers
• Be aware that reading patterns differ.
• Be aware of varying cultural attitudes toward giving
instruction.
• Deemphasize trivial details.
• Avoid culture-specific language, symbols, and
references.
• Portray people very carefully.
• Be particularly careful in portraying hand gestures.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
14
You Do Not Need to Cite Graphics
in the Following Cases:
• You created the graphic yourself.
• Your organization owns the copyright to the graphic.
• You are using the graphic in a document that is
written for a course assignment and that will not be
published.
• The graphic is in the public domain and therefore is
not covered by copyright laws.
Chapter 14. Creating Graphics
© 2004 by Bedford/St. Martin's
15
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards