William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) Yale Professor of Sociology; Episcopal minister Social Darwinist/Evolutionary Naturalist Works: What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (1883) Folkways (1906) Sumner’s Beliefs A nation cannot allow plutocracy to emerge (control of the political system by those with the greatest wealth and power) NOR can it allow the poorest and least powerful to either. Sumner believed that those who must be “taken care of” by others MUST be disenfranchised (i.e. not allowed to vote) for they cannot be permitted to even slightly govern those that are providers. Sumner’s Beliefs continued… Likewise, those who have the power to lobby in government cannot be allowed to govern those who represent the working and consumer classes. Only individuals should govern, not entities… He dubbed the socalled “man in the middle” (middle class/working/ producers, “the forgotten man” and viewed American democracy as flawed in its current evolution. Conclusions by Sumner Families that have too many children represent a threat to themselves and all others in a nation. When capital (wealth/money/assets) must be divided among many versus a few, hardship always results. Thus, the efficient use of capital by a society is the most important thing that can happen for that society’s continued well-being. Preserving the will of the “forgotten man” is imperative to a stable society.