Ireland 1801-1921 Lessons 11-14 The Great

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Ireland 1801-1921
Lessons 9-12
The Irish Famine
PowerPoint presentations
OHTs
Other visual sources used in various lessons
Gary Hillyard, Ashfield School
‘Ireland in Schools’
NPS
School of Education, U. Nottingham
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Lesson 9
What caused Ireland to suffer between 1845 & 1850?
Overview
OHT The Famine by Roisin Hambly
Lesson 10
How did different groups respond to the Irish Famine?
Overview
Five visual sources
Problem solving: responses to the Great Famine
Lesson 11
How did Nationalists react to the Famine?
Overview
Lesson 12
What effect did the Famine have on the Irish?
Overview
OHT Freeze-frame Famine scene
Information cards?
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What caused Ireland to suffer
between 1845 and 1850?
Aims
•To examine the causes of the Great
Famine.
•To analyse picture evidence for meaning.
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Aims
•To examine the
causes of the Great
Famine.
•To analyse picture
evidence for
meaning.
The Graphic Story – what
are the causes, the short
term and long term
effects of the Famine?
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Aims
•To examine the
causes of the Great
Famine.
•To analyse picture
evidence for
meaning.
Small Farms
Population
Staple crop
was potato.
Use the sources to fill out
the boxes on the Causes
w/s.
People ate
lots of
potatoes.
Disease
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The Famine (Roisin Hambly)
In the Spring of ’45
I planted my potato crop,
But when I dug them up in Winter
They were black and brown from rot.
There were seven in my family,
Four children under five,
I had to find some food for them,
To keep them all alive.
I saw a soldier selling corn,
No one was around,
I took this opportunity
To knock him to the ground.
I robbed him of his food and money
And quickly ran away,
But sadly I was caught and killed
And left there to decay.
It wasn’t too bad to start with,
But by Autumn ’47,
Two members of my family
Had died and gone to Heaven.
That Winter it was long and cold
And every thing was bare,
Then when my lovely wife passed on
I thought it so unfair.
My family were now so thin,
Their faces were so hollow
They decided to emigrate
But foolishly I didn’t follow.
How does it make you
feel?
How does the narrator
feel?
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How did different groups
respond to the Famine?
Aims
•To examine how the British government
reacted.
•To look at the activities of the
Nationalist movement.
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Visual sources 1/5 Lesson 12
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Visual sources 2/5 Lesson 12
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Visual sources 3/5 Lesson 12
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Visual sources 4/5 Lesson 12
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Visual sources 5/5 Lesson 12
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Task 1:
You are going to be given one
minute at each of the
sources spread around the
room. Around the outside of
the picture you must write
words or phrases to describe
how it makes you feel.
Aims
•To examine how
the British
government
reacted.
•To look at the
activities of the
Nationalist
movement.
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Responses to the Great Famine
Scenario 1
The Famine began in 1845. By July
1846 the position of the Irish was so
bad. The potato crop had failed and
the Irish were running out of food.
Peel, a Conservative, was the Prime
Minister of the Great Britain. In his
position should he…
a) Send across new potato seeds in
order for Irish farmers to grow new
potato crops?
b) Overturn the Corn Laws which
taxed foreign grain and made it more
expensive?
c) Do nothing – the problem has only
been going on for a few months and
may well just die down?
Scenario 2
There is still a shortage of
foodstuffs. Some corn is dripping
through from the mainland but it is
not enough for the Irish to survive.
If you were Peel do you…
a) Try and import more grain from
abroad, particularly America. This
can then be sold cheaply?
b) Ask Parliament for extra cash to
give money to the famine victims?
c) Encourage the Irish to ration the
food that they eat to ensure that
there is enough corn to go round?
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Responses to the Great Famine
Scenario 4
Scenario 3
The corn is still not solving the
problem, although it is making life
slightly better. The Irish poor still
had to work for landlords.
If you were Peel…
a) Would you try to encourage the
landlords to farm the land
themselves?
b) Would you encourage the
landlords to organise together and
raise money for those effected and
to provide work?
c) Would you tell the landlords to
sell up while they still can?
The price of grain is increasing
massively. The Irish Boards of Work
continue to employ men to carry out
public works schemes such as road
repairs and road building. By 1847
750,000 men worked for the Boards.
The Boards of Work had a decision
to make, though…
a) Should they pay them at
subsistence level – enough money to
get by?
b) Should they pay them above
subsistence level allowing them to
prosper?
c) Should they pay them below
subsistence level otherwise everyone
would want to work for the Boards?
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Responses to the Great Famine
Scenario 5
Scenario 6
The Labour Act was passed in 1846
which further worked on landlords to
provide work, punishing them if they
did not by forcing them to pay a
‘labour rate’. However, by the spring
of 1847 the situation was worsening.
From late 1847 the Poor Relief
system (allowing the poorest people
to go to workhouses to be looked
after) was failing. c.200,000 people
were sheltered in workhouses,
double the number they should have
held. Conditions were appalling and
the unions which ran them were
bankrupt.
If you were Russell (PM after Peel)
would you…
a) Begin freely distributing food
through soup kitchens, like the
Quakers had done?
b) Double the ‘labour rate’ – find
work for the poor or go bankrupt?
c) Do nothing. You have already done
enough?
Should Russell…
a) Build more workhouses to cope
with the problem?
b) Begin giving relief to the poor still
living at home – outdoor relief?
c) Expand the public works schemes?
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Responses to the Great Famine
Scenario 1
The FamineCorrect
began inAnswer
1845. By July
1846 the position of the Irish was so
b) Overturn the Corn Laws which
bad. The potato crop had failed and
taxed foreign grain and made it more
the Irish were running out of food.
expensive.
Peel, a Conservative, was the Prime
Minister of the Great Britain. In his
position should he…
This would make grain much cheaper
a) Send
for
the Irish
acrosstonew
import.
potato seeds in
order for Irish farmers to grow new
potato crops?
b) Overturn the Corn Laws which
taxed foreign grain and made it more
expensive?
c) Do nothing – the problem has only
been going on for a few months and
may well just die down?
Scenario 2
There is still
Correct
a shortage
Answer
of
foodstuffs. Some corn is dripping
a) Try and import more grain from
through from the mainland but it is
abroad, particularly America. This
not enough for the Irish to survive.
can then be sold cheaply.
If you were Peel do you…
a) Try and import more grain from
abroad,
This
would
particularly
make more
America.
corn readily
This
can then be
available
to the
soldIrish
cheaply?
and would put
less pressure on the British to
b) Ask Parliament for extra cash to
provide corn.
give money to the famine victims?
c) Encourage the Irish to ration the
food that they eat to ensure that
there is enough corn to go round?
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Responses to the Great Famine
Scenario 3
The corn isCorrect
still notAnswer
solving the
problem, although it is making life
b) Would you encourage the
slightly better. The Irish poor still
landlords to organise together and
had to work for landlords.
raise money for those effected and
to provide work?
If you were Peel…
The
a)
Would
government
you try believed
to encourage
in thethe
landlords
policy
of laissez-faire
to farm the land
– that it
themselves?
should
not interfere in local affairs.
Hence, its reliance on landlords to
b) Would you encourage the
organise relief.
landlords to organise together and
raise money for those effected and
to provide work?
c) Would you tell the landlords to
sell up while they still can?
Scenario 4
The price of grain is increasing
massively. The Irish Boards of Work
continue to employ men to carry out
public works schemes such as road
repairs and road building. By 1847
750,000 men worked for the Boards.
The Boards of Work had a decision to
make, though…
a) Should they pay them at subsistence
level – enough money to get by?
b) Should they pay them above
subsistence level allowing them to
prosper?
c) Should they pay them below
subsistence level otherwise everyone
would want to work for the Boards?
Menu
Responses to the Great Famine
Scenario 5
Scenario 6
The LabourCorrect
Act wasAnswer
passed in 1846
which further worked on landlords to
a) Begin freely distributing food
provide work, punishing them if they
through soup kitchens, like the
did not by forcing them to pay a
Quakers had done.
‘labour rate’. However, by the spring
of 1847 the situation was worsening.
From late 1847
Correct
the Answer
Poor Relief
system (allowing the poorest people
a) Begin giving relief to the poor still
to go to workhouses to be looked
living at home – outdoor relief.
after) was failing. c.200,000 people
were sheltered in workhouses,
double the number they should have
Around 800,000 people were given
held. Conditions were appalling and
aid in their home. Building
the unions which ran them were
workhouses would have been too
bankrupt.
much involvement and public work
Should Russell…
schemes
were dropped in 1847.
Volunteer
If
you were
and
Russell
religious
(PMgroups
after Peel)
like
would
the
Quakers
you… had already begun
distributing food in this way. Once
a) Begin freely distributing food
again, the scheme was chosen
through soup kitchens, like the
because of the laissez-faire
Quakers had done?
approach - it was paid for through
b) Double
local
rates.the
By‘labour
August,
rate’
3 million
– find+
work for
were
fed the
thispoor
way.or
Scheme
go bankrupt?
ended in
September 1847.
c) Do nothing. You have already done
enough?
a) Build more workhouses to cope
with the problem?
b) Begin giving relief to the poor still
living at home – outdoor relief?
c) Expand the public works schemes?
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Homework:
Read through the extract
from Under the Hawthorn
Tree and the review of it, as
well as the Horrible
Histories section. Use these
to answer the questions on
the worksheet.
Aims
•To examine how
the British
government
reacted.
•To look at the
activities of the
Nationalist
movement.
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How did the nationalists react
to the Famine?
Aims
•To examine the nationalist reaction.
•To assess whether or not that was a
continuation of their previous aims and
methods.
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What do you think the reaction of Irish Nationalists
would have been to the British response to the Famine?
Aims
•To examine the
nationalist reaction.
•To assess whether
or not that was a
continuation of
their previous aims
and methods.
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The actual reaction.
Young Ireland Rebellion Aims:
Aims
•To examine the
nationalist reaction.
•To assess whether
or not that was a
continuation of
their previous aims
and methods.
Methods:
Tenant right movement Aims:
Methods:
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Aims
•To examine the
nationalist reaction.
•To assess whether
or not that was a
continuation of
their previous aims
and methods.
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What effect did the Great
Famine have on the Irish?
Aims
•To examine the short and long-term
impact of the Irish famine.
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Aims
•To examine the
short and long-term
impact of the Irish
famine.
Freeze-frame Lesson 12
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Population
• c.1 million men,
women and children
died between 184550.
• Irish population
declined from c.8
million in 1841 to
c.6m in 1851.
• By 1900 the Irish
population was ½ the
size it was in 1845.
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Land
• Cottiers (small land owners)
were destroyed and their
population fell dramatically.
• c.200,000 smaller farms
were lost.
• 10% of the old landlord
class went bankrupt.
• Encumbered Estates Act
was passed in 1849 to speed
up the sale of land.
• 1850s – c.3,000 estates
sold.
• But – most were brought by
speculators or existing
members of the landlord
class.
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Farming and Living Standards
• There was less
concentration on potato
farming and more
concentration on dairy and
exporting cattle.
• Living standards improved
because wages increased.
• Housing standards
improved as did literacy –
due to urbanisation.
• The m-c farmer became
the centre of Irish
countryside – there was a
77% increase in farmers’
income and many farmers
got the vote in 1850.
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Emigration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1815-45 – 1.5 million emigrated.
1845-50 – 1.5 million people
emigrated.
1850-1910 – 4.5-5 million
emigrated.
¼ went to England and Scotland;
majority went to America.
Before the famine, it was mainly
single, landless men who
emigrated.
Early years of the Famine –
mainly cottiers and labourers,
plus some richer people
emigrated.
After 1850 it was only
smallholders and labourers.
Whole families now went too.
Emigration was hard.
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Use the information you
have gathered over the last
four lessons and the articles
to plan and write an answer
to the question:
Aims
•To examine the
short and long-term
impact of the Irish
famine.
What effect did the Great
Famine have on the Irish?
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Just a minute…
Aims
•To examine the
short and long-term
impact of the Irish
famine.
The aim is to speak about
the topic given to you by
your teacher for 1 minute
without hesitating, repeating
or diverging.
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