Plant classification

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PLANT TAXONOMY
Learning Objectives
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Students will be able to define order, family, genus
and species.
Students will understand the process of plant
classification.
Plant Classification.
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In order to study the billions of different organisms
living on Earth, scientists have sorted and classified
them based on their similarities and differences.
This system of classification is also called taxonomy
and usually features both English and Latin names
for different divisions.
It is always best to specify the exact plant you
want by the scientific name.
It is also important for people in the commercial
plant and nursery business to know both scientific
and common names as they become confusing.
Theophrastus 370-285 B.C.
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He was a Greek philosopher and naturalist and is
often called the "Father of Botany."
He was a pupil of Aristotle and was the first person
to publish a classification of plants.
Classified plants based on form
 Herbs, shrubs, trees
 Annuals, perennials, biennials
Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778
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Linnaeus was the first person to
propose an orderly system for
classifying organisms.
He developed the Binomial
System of Naming Plants in
1753
 Bi= 2
 Nomial= name
 All plants have a scientific
name composed of two Latin
names known as a genus and
specie
His system is still used today and
his called the Father of
Taxonomy!
Plant Classification
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Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Activity
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Mnemonics at its best!
 You
and a partner will develop your own
acronym mnemonics that will help you in
remembering the order of classification!
 You will have to come up with an interesting
sentence using the first word of each division
of classification, in order!
 Example:
King Phillip Comes Over For Great
Spaghetti!
 Be
Prepared to share your Mnemonic with
the class!
Plant Kingdom
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Over 275,000 species
All plants are included in one Kingdom (Plantae)
which is then broken down into smaller and smaller
divisions based on several characteristics, including:
 Whether
they can circulate fluids (like rainwater)
through their bodies or need to absorb them from the
moisture that surrounds them
 How they reproduce (by spores or different kinds of
seeds)
 Their size or stature.
Phylum
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Plants are divided in this category based
on:
 whether
or not the plant bears or produces
seeds.
 Vascular or Non-Vascular plants
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Over 250,000 plants in this category.
Class
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Over 235,00 species
Plants are divided into two types of classes
 Angiospermae (angiosperms)- plants which produce flowers
 Gymnospermae (gymnosperms)- plants which don’t produce
flowers
Subclass
 Dicotyledonae (dicotyledons/dicots)– plants with two seed
leaves
 Monocotyledonae (monocotyledons/monocot)- plants with one
seed leaf
Order
A
group of related plant families, classified
in the order in which they are thought to
have developed their differences from a
common ancestor.
 Vegetative
Structures
 Reproductive Structures
 Over
18,000 species
 Names of orders end in ales
Family
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Each order is divided into families
These are plants with many botanical features in common.
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Vegetative and Reproductive Structures used.
Related plants with similar flower parts are grouped together.
The Rose Family, Rosaceae, consists of plums, apples, strawberries
because they all have similar flower structures.
The names of families end in –aceae
Over3,500 species
Genus
 This
is the part of the plant name that is most
familiar, the normal name that you give a
plant- Papaver (Poppy).
 This is the plants group name
 All plants having the same generic name are
said to belong to the same Genus and have
similar characteristics and are closely
related.
 The name of the Genus should be written
with a capital letter.
 Over 500 species
Examples of plant Genus
Genus
 Acer- all maples
 Pinus- all pines
 Ilex- all hollies
 Quercus- all oaks
 Begonia- all begonias
 Rhododendron- all azaleas
 Juniperus- all junipers
 Viola- all violet types
** Think of the plant Genus name as a noun!
specie
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This is the highest level that defines an individual plant.
Often, the name will describe some aspect of the plant. The color of the
flowers, size or shape of the leaves, or it may be named after the place
where it was found.
Together the Genus and species name refer to only one plant, and they
are used to identify that particular plant.
The specie name is an adjective that describes the genus.
 *Alba means white: Quercus alba= white oak
 *Rubrum means red: Acer rubrum= red maple
The name of the species should be written after the Genus name, in
small letters, with no capital letter.
Examples of specie and Genus
Acer rubrum= Red maple
 Acer saccharum= Sugar maple
 Acer palmatum= Japanese maple
 Quercus palustris= Pin oak
 Quercus virginiana= Live oak
Specific names give geographical
information:
 Pinus virginia- Virginia Pine
 Taxes canadensis= Canadian Yew
 Tsuga caroliniana= Carolina Hemlock
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Example of Classification
Common Name: Corn Plant
Category
Scientific Name
Kingdom
Plantae
Phylum
Spermatophyta
Class
Angiospermae
Sub-Class
Monocotyledonae
Family
Gramine
Genus
Zea
Specie
Mays
Activity!
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Karaoke E-Moment!
Remember the Classification Rap Video
from the beginning of class?
 Use
the following classification order and
meanings to create your very own song!
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You may work with a partner! Be creative!
Pick you favorite song as you know the
words and can plug in the classification
terms!
 Row,
row, row you boat, right down
Classification Lane…..
 Mary had a little Kingdom……
Ticket out the Door!
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1. Explain why plants are classified?
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2. Who was the first person to create a classification of plants?
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3. Who is the Father of Taxonomy? What did he create that is still used today?
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4. What is the Kingdom called for plants?
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5. ___________classifies plants on whether or not the plant bears or produces
seeds.
6. List the two type of classes for plants.
7. _________refers to related plants with similar flower parts that are grouped
together.
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8. Related plants with similar flower parts are grouped together as____________.
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9.________ is the plants group name.
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10._________defines an individual plant and it will describe some aspect of the
plant.
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