PLANT TAXONOMY Learning Objectives Students will be able to define order, family, genus and species. Students will understand the process of plant classification. Plant Classification. In order to study the billions of different organisms living on Earth, scientists have sorted and classified them based on their similarities and differences. This system of classification is also called taxonomy and usually features both English and Latin names for different divisions. It is always best to specify the exact plant you want by the scientific name. It is also important for people in the commercial plant and nursery business to know both scientific and common names as they become confusing. Theophrastus 370-285 B.C. He was a Greek philosopher and naturalist and is often called the "Father of Botany." He was a pupil of Aristotle and was the first person to publish a classification of plants. Classified plants based on form Herbs, shrubs, trees Annuals, perennials, biennials Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 Linnaeus was the first person to propose an orderly system for classifying organisms. He developed the Binomial System of Naming Plants in 1753 Bi= 2 Nomial= name All plants have a scientific name composed of two Latin names known as a genus and specie His system is still used today and his called the Father of Taxonomy! Plant Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Activity Mnemonics at its best! You and a partner will develop your own acronym mnemonics that will help you in remembering the order of classification! You will have to come up with an interesting sentence using the first word of each division of classification, in order! Example: King Phillip Comes Over For Great Spaghetti! Be Prepared to share your Mnemonic with the class! Plant Kingdom Over 275,000 species All plants are included in one Kingdom (Plantae) which is then broken down into smaller and smaller divisions based on several characteristics, including: Whether they can circulate fluids (like rainwater) through their bodies or need to absorb them from the moisture that surrounds them How they reproduce (by spores or different kinds of seeds) Their size or stature. Phylum Plants are divided in this category based on: whether or not the plant bears or produces seeds. Vascular or Non-Vascular plants Over 250,000 plants in this category. Class Over 235,00 species Plants are divided into two types of classes Angiospermae (angiosperms)- plants which produce flowers Gymnospermae (gymnosperms)- plants which don’t produce flowers Subclass Dicotyledonae (dicotyledons/dicots)– plants with two seed leaves Monocotyledonae (monocotyledons/monocot)- plants with one seed leaf Order A group of related plant families, classified in the order in which they are thought to have developed their differences from a common ancestor. Vegetative Structures Reproductive Structures Over 18,000 species Names of orders end in ales Family Each order is divided into families These are plants with many botanical features in common. Vegetative and Reproductive Structures used. Related plants with similar flower parts are grouped together. The Rose Family, Rosaceae, consists of plums, apples, strawberries because they all have similar flower structures. The names of families end in –aceae Over3,500 species Genus This is the part of the plant name that is most familiar, the normal name that you give a plant- Papaver (Poppy). This is the plants group name All plants having the same generic name are said to belong to the same Genus and have similar characteristics and are closely related. The name of the Genus should be written with a capital letter. Over 500 species Examples of plant Genus Genus Acer- all maples Pinus- all pines Ilex- all hollies Quercus- all oaks Begonia- all begonias Rhododendron- all azaleas Juniperus- all junipers Viola- all violet types ** Think of the plant Genus name as a noun! specie This is the highest level that defines an individual plant. Often, the name will describe some aspect of the plant. The color of the flowers, size or shape of the leaves, or it may be named after the place where it was found. Together the Genus and species name refer to only one plant, and they are used to identify that particular plant. The specie name is an adjective that describes the genus. *Alba means white: Quercus alba= white oak *Rubrum means red: Acer rubrum= red maple The name of the species should be written after the Genus name, in small letters, with no capital letter. Examples of specie and Genus Acer rubrum= Red maple Acer saccharum= Sugar maple Acer palmatum= Japanese maple Quercus palustris= Pin oak Quercus virginiana= Live oak Specific names give geographical information: Pinus virginia- Virginia Pine Taxes canadensis= Canadian Yew Tsuga caroliniana= Carolina Hemlock Example of Classification Common Name: Corn Plant Category Scientific Name Kingdom Plantae Phylum Spermatophyta Class Angiospermae Sub-Class Monocotyledonae Family Gramine Genus Zea Specie Mays Activity! Karaoke E-Moment! Remember the Classification Rap Video from the beginning of class? Use the following classification order and meanings to create your very own song! You may work with a partner! Be creative! Pick you favorite song as you know the words and can plug in the classification terms! Row, row, row you boat, right down Classification Lane….. Mary had a little Kingdom…… Ticket out the Door! 1. Explain why plants are classified? 2. Who was the first person to create a classification of plants? 3. Who is the Father of Taxonomy? What did he create that is still used today? 4. What is the Kingdom called for plants? 5. ___________classifies plants on whether or not the plant bears or produces seeds. 6. List the two type of classes for plants. 7. _________refers to related plants with similar flower parts that are grouped together. 8. Related plants with similar flower parts are grouped together as____________. 9.________ is the plants group name. 10._________defines an individual plant and it will describe some aspect of the plant.