Types of Government Notes

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Government
Citizen Participation
Autocratic/
Autocracy
Oligarchic/
Oligarchy
Democratic/
Democracy
Definition
Definition
Definition
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
Autocratic/
Autocracy
Oligarchic/
Oligarchy
Democratic/
Democracy
Examples
Examples
Examples
Picture
Picture
Picture
Citizen Participation
• Different governments decide
a citizens’ role in government
differently
• The government can share
none, little, or most of its
power with its citizens
3 main ways governments
determine citizen
participation . . .
1. autocratic
2. oligarchic
3. democratic
AUTOCRATIC
rule by one
OLIGARCHIC
rule by the few
DEMOCRATIC
rule by all
Citizen’s Role in Government
Autocratic
(one)
LEAST
citizen
participation
Oligarchic
(few)
Democratic
(all)
MOST
citizen
participation
Low or No Participation
Autocratic
Low or No Participation
Oligarchic
Citizen Participation
Government Power
General Citizens’
Participation
Select Citizens’
Participation
Government Power
Citizen Participation
Government Power
How Governments Determine
High Participation
High Participation
Citizen Participation
Low or No Participation
Democracy
Autocratic
• One person (ex. King,
Emperor, Czar) possesses
unlimited power
• The citizen has limited, if
any, role in government
Autocratic cont.
• Ruler gets power through
inheritance or ruthless use of
military & police power
• The oldest form of government
• One of the most common forms
of government
Examples of Autocratic Gov’ts
Totalitarianism & Dictatorships
• Ideas of a single leader glorified
• Gov’t tries to control all parts of social
& economic life
• People lack the power to limit their
rulers
• Examples- Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin,
Sudan
Examples of Autocratic Gov’ts
•
•
•
•
•
Absolute Monarchy
King, queen, or emperor has
unlimited power
Position is usually inherited (from
parents or other relatives)
People lack the power to limit their
rulers
Absolute monarchs are rare today
but from the 1400s to the 1700s they
ruled most of Western Europe
Example - King of Saudi Arabia
Oligarchy
• Government by the few (a few
powerful individuals make
decisions)
• A small group exercises control,
especially for corrupt and selfish
purposes
• The citizen has a very limited role
Oligarchy
•The ruling group gets its power
from military power, wealth,
religion or a combination.
•Political disagreement is usually
suppressed (sometimes
violently)
Examples of Oligarchy
Theocracy (Iran)
• a government run by religious
authority
• A Deity (god) is recognized as the
highest ruler
• The Deity's laws are interpreted by
religious experts (priests, mullahs,
etc.)
Examples of Oligarchy
Communism (China)
• Gov’t plans & controls the economy
• a single party holds power
• state controls are forced
• NO private ownership of property
• All goods are to be equally shared by
the people (ex. classless society)
WARNING!
Autocracy & Oligarchy
• Sometimes claim they rule for the people.
• In reality, the people have very little say in both
types of government.
• Example - may hold elections with only one
candidate or control the results of elections
• Example - even when these governments have a
legislature (branch that makes laws), they often
only approve decisions made by the leaders.
Democracy
•Citizens vote on government
representatives & on specific
issues
•People have the most power
Presidential Democracy
Parliamentary Democracy
Definition:
Definition:
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
Examples
Examples
2 main forms of democratic
governments . . .
1.Parliamentary: parliament
(legislature) elects prime
minister
2. Presidential: citizens elect
president
Presidential
Democracy
• Different branches of government
(executive, legislative, judicial) are equal
in power
• Executive branch independent from the
legislature (ex. president elected by
citizens not legislature)
Examples of
Presidential Democracy
Republic
(U.S., Kenya, South Africa, India)
the people elect representatives to govern and
make laws
Parliamentary Democracy
•Legislature makes most
decisions
•Executive (Prime Minister)
elected by the legislature
instead of by the citizens
•Example - Israel
Examples of
Parliamentary Democracy
Constitutional Monarchy
(Japan)
• Monarch (king or queen) must follow
the laws of the constitution
• monarch is usually a figure-head, the
real power rests with the legislature
(Parliament/Congress)
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