A web-based repository service for vocabularies and alignments in the Cultural Heritage domain Lourens van der Meij
• Authors not here • Projects
Using SW techniques for CH data
Focus on vocabularies and alignments • Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) like thesauri are used to describe cultural objects • Many different KOSs are used in different institutions • Merging them in one global vocabulary is not realistic nor desirable
Semantic matching as a solution to tackle semantic heterogeneity
• • Application cases Semantic search and browsing (Re-)Indexing • • Overall functions Uniform access to vocabularies Access & management of alignments Experiment idea: test SW techniques for flexibility, ease of re-use and linking models & data
Existing RDF best practices: SKOS
animals NT cats cats UF domestic cats RT wildcats BT animals SN used only for domestic cats domestic cats USE cats wildcats
Existing RDF best practices: SKOS • • Crucial features for a repository Vocabulary membership Cross-vocabulary mapping properties
From Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative • Mapping cells – – 2 entities being matched 1 relation type (any!) – 1 measure – Provide hook for annotations • Alignments between ontologies as set of cells – Can also be annotated
• Need for dedicated middleware: some reqs beyond basic data access are not met by standard SPARQL – Full-text search on labels – Ranking of results – Access control/authentication – Query complexity control – LoD data publication strategy – Other data exchange formats (JSON) • APIs are also a good way to structure practices in a domain
• API is inspired by both SKOS and OAEI APIs • But dedicated to simple vocabularies Not fully-fledged ontologies • Dedicated to vocabularies and alignments More than usual terminology repositories • Alignments are for simple vocabularies Restricting OAEI-based functions to SKOS mappings
Distributed service architecture • Allowing to serve either vocabularies or alignments or both Fitting different stakeholder missions/interests • One service can sit on several others Distribution thought as a scalability-enabler Sends reassuring message re. access control
Distributed service architecture
Plus: many alignments automatically created in the STITCH project
Driven by “business” interests E.g., KB has a list of relevant KOSs in its context
Doel groep - audience Biblion NUR UNESCO class.
Brinkman NBC class.
GTT Dutch Public Libraries Dutch Book trade KB Deposit Coll.
overlap between book collections (thickness indicates degree of overlap)
Vertical adjustment between a coll. and KOSs denotes KOSs' being used to describe that coll.
KB Corporatie + Persoon KB Scientific Coll.
BISAC subject codes DDC Dewey decimal class.
LCSH subject headings LC (US Nat.
Lib) LC authority file RAMEAU subject headings BnF (French Nat. Lib)
SWD subject headings
domain/ discipline classifications subject thesauri / subj. heading lists
DNB (German Nat. Lib)
book collection datasets
Autorités BNF Personen namen datei
person/ corporation data Johan Stapel
Vocabulary and alignment browser Deployment (1)
Deployment (2) • • • RAMEAU (French NL) as linked data Interlinked with LCSH (Library of Congress) Soon to SWD (German NL) Using manual mappings from the MACS project http://stitch.cs.vu.nl/repository
Deployment (3) • STITCH re-indexing prototype (ISWC 2009) Plugged onto KB cataloguing system
• • Middleware is still useful – – To match real application requirements To gather communities of practice around new usages But SW tools really help building it • • Relevance of existing models like SKOS – – Only one part of SKOS unused (collections) and one extension required (concept scheme groups)
Disclaimer: we were involved in SKOS
Interest from the Cultural Heritage domain
• Some basic middleware functions like full-text search are now tackled by vendor-specific SPARQL ext.
We prefer it that way
• Working out the distributed architecture is difficult
Progress on federated RDF repositories can be useful
• Versioning/changes MUST be addressed at a fine grained level (concepts)
Maybe the issue with the least mature solutions!
CATCHplus: continuing CATCH efforts, bringing them even closer to production New repository and interface
• Refinement of HTTP API E.g., Possibility to search for pairs of related concepts, with constraints Closer to SPARQL, but still limiting complexity • Based on Openlink Virtuoso – – Disk-based implementation can handle huge datasets Built-in LOD function & full-text features
• Architecture is no longer distributed, for now!
Difficult conflict between requirements
– Some clients had requirements for SPARQL – Federated SPARQL query is (was?) not yet mature • Named graphs are being experimented – – For representing KOS data bundles (file upload) For contextualizing triples (one shortcoming of SKOS/RDF)