Warm up March 29 What new experience did you have this weekend? Explain how assimilation and accommodation played a role in how you handled this experience. David Kolb ELT & LSI Experiential learning theory (ELT), and learning styles inventory (LSI). 4 distinct learning styles (or preferences), based on a four-stage learning cycle. Way to understand individual people's different learning styles, and also an explanation of a cycle of experiential learning that applies to us all. Cycle of learning Kolb includes this 'cycle of learning' as a central principle in his experiential learning theory. “immediate or concrete experiences' provide a basis for 'observations and reflections'. These 'observations and reflections' are assimilated and distilled into 'abstract concepts' producing new implications for action which can be 'actively tested' in turn creating new experiences. Learning Cycle Kolb's model therefore works on two levels - a four-stage cycle: Concrete Experience - (CE) Reflective Observation - (RO) Abstract Conceptualization - (AC) Active Experimentation - (AE) Learning Styles Four-type definition of learning styles, (each representing the combination of two preferred styles, rather like a two-by-two matrix of the four-stage cycle styles, as illustrated below), for which Kolb used the terms: Diverging (CE/RO) Assimilating (AC/RO) Converging (AC/AE) Accommodating (CE/AE) Axis A typical presentation of Kolb's two continuums is that the east-west axis is called the Processing Continuum (how we approach a task), and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it). These learning styles are the combination of two lines of axis (continuums) each formed between what Kolb calls 'dialectically related modes' of 'grasping experience' (doing or watching), and 'transforming experience' (feeling or thinking): In layman’s terms In other words we choose our approach to the task or experience ('grasping the experience') by opting for 1(a) or 1(b): 1(a) - though watching others involved in the experience and reflecting on what happens ('reflective observation' - 'watching') or 1(b) - through 'jumping straight in' and just doing it ('active experimentation' - 'doing') And at the same time we choose how to emotionally transform the experience into something meaningful and useful by opting for 2(a) or 2(b): 2(a) - through gaining new information by thinking, analyzing, or planning ('abstract conceptualization' - 'thinking') or 2(b) - through experiencing the 'concrete, tangible, felt qualities of the world' ('concrete experience' - 'feeling') Doing (Active Experimentation - AE) Watching (Reflective Observation RO) Feeling (Concrete Experience - CE) Accommodating (CE/AE) Diverging (CE/RO) Thinking (Abstract Conceptualizatio n - AC) Converging (AC/AE) Assimilating (AC/RO) Warm up March 31st In what ways have you learned through observation? In what ways have you seen a sibling or younger cousin or younger person learn from your behaviour? Bandura Observational learning. Also known as vicarious learning, social learning, or modeling. Is a function of observing, retaining and replicating behaviour. • Attention to the model - In order for the behaviour to be learned, the observer must see the modeled behaviour • Retention of details – The observer must be able to recall the modeled behaviour • Motor reproduction – The observer must have the motor skills to reproduce the action, the observer must also have the motivation to carry out the action • Motivation and opportunity – The observer must be motivated to carry out the action they have observed and remembered, and must have the opportunity to do so. Motivations may include past reinforcement, promised incentives, and vicarious reinforcement. Punishment may discourage repetition of the behaviour Behaviourism Self-regulation -- controlling our own behavior -- is the other “workhorse” of human personality. Here Bandura suggests three steps: 1. Self-observation. We look at ourselves, our behavior, and keep tabs on it. 2. Judgment. We compare what we see with a standard. For example, we can compare our performance with traditional standards, such as “rules of etiquette.” Or we can create arbitrary ones, like “I’ll read a book a week.” Or we can compete with others, or with ourselves. 3. Self-response. If you did well in comparison with your standard, you give yourself rewarding self-responses. If you did poorly, you give yourself punishing self-responses. These selfresponses can range from the obvious (treating yourself to a sundae or working late) to the more covert (feelings of pride or shame). Therapy Modeling therapy Used with phobics. They watch one person do what they are afraid to do and are more likely to participate or copy because it has been modelled. Web Quest With a partner – take the Bandura Webquest and find answers to each questions.