I. The Integrative Model An Inductive strategy: Used to teach combinations of concepts within an organized body of knowledge, and to practice critical thinking II. Organized Bodies of Knowledge The historical foundations of this model is based on the work of Hilda Taba, which concludes that knowledge construction is organized in memory in the form of schema. Much of the content we teach in schools exists in the forms of organized bodies of knowledge. Differences Between the Inductive Model and the Integrative Model • Inductive Model: – Use to teach a specific concept, generalization, principle and/or academic rule • Integrative Model: – Used to teach combinations of these forms of content within an organized body of knowledge (topic) – Students practice critical thinking while finding patterns, forming conclusions & hypotheses & by justifying their thinking Examples of Topics that are Organized Bodies of Knowledge Subject Topic Social Studies Compare climates, cultures & economies of 3 countries Life science Compare different animal phyla and the characteristics of each Health Compare well-balanced and poorly balanced meals Art Compare art forms of different historical periods Literature Compare the works of Faulkner, Fitzgerald & Hemingway Early Elementary History Compare different community helpers Music Compare Baroque, Romantic & Classical music Compare northern & southern colonial settlements III. Goals of Integrative Model Content: – Not to teach specific facts, concepts. etc., but to have students understand the relationships among them Thinking Skills: – To develop critical thinking by finding patterns, forming explanations, making generalizations – Documenting thinking with facts Teacher’s Role in Integrative Model • To understand that learning is constructed by the learners, not transmitted by the teacher • To facilitate student discussion and analysis • To keep lesson & discussion moving • To select good examples & forms of information for students • To become skilled at questioning IV. Planning with the Integrative Model • Identify Topics • Specify Objectives – both Content & Thinking • Prepare Data Representation: The Data Comparison Matrix– – Decide on data sources for students Around The World World Countries S. Africa Japan Ireland Germany Iceland Tanzania Weather Major Animal Life Landforms Culture V. Implementing Lessons using the Integrative Model Phase Description Phase 1 Gather data using the matrix as a guide Phase 2 Describe, compare & search for patterns Phase 3 Note & explain similarities & differences Phase 4 Hypothesize outcomes for different conditions Phase 5 Generalize to form broad relationships VI. Modifications of Integrative Model to use with Younger Students • Modify the way information is presented • Begin with more traditional ways of questioning (T S, later move into T S S S discussion) • Younger students need to focus more on looking for patterns, making comparisons, and describing them • Teachers will do more guiding to help students articulate ideas & thoughts VII. Assessment Measuring students’ understanding of organized bodies of knowledge is more complex than measuring the understanding of single concepts. Through the use of essay or multiple choice type assessments, teachers must develop a pool items that will measure deep understanding of content and critical-thinking abilities.