Create rational contexts
Argue particular relationships
Why has Europe moved closer to unification since World War Two?
How do Western assumptions about the relationship between body and mind influence the practice of medicine?
Why can so many post-colonial nations be considered “failed states” many decades after independence?
What was the relationship between theology and social context in the early Methodist movement?
Create your own academic question
Does modern technology make life more convenient, or was life better when technology was simpler?
Is education is the single most important factor in the development of a country?
Describes the relationship
Because A is of B nature, then C.
If A causes B, then B is of C nature.
B does not cause C, but A influences both B and
A) Increased ethnic tensions
PLUS B) Lack of local infrastructure
DESPITE C) Influx of foreign aid
CAUSES D) The instability of the postcolonial nation-state
A) Bohrs’ approach to physics
B) From that of
Einstein; This difference is not only
REFLECTED C) In the language each uses; it is
CONSTRUCTED D) By that language.
A logical argument exists whenever two elements are present:
EXAMPLE: Most Americans need to
EXAMPLE: According to the latest
government figures, most
Americans are overweight.
The Constitution restricts our right to bear arms.
Immigrants are taking away jobs from Americans who need work.
Alcoholism is a disease, not a vice.
The death penalty constitutes "cruel and unusual punishment."
The popularity of the Internet has led to a rise in plagiarism amongst students.
Tougher gun laws would decrease the number of homicides.
Doctor-assisted suicide is immoral.
Violent computer games are detrimental to children’s social development.
Welfare programs should not be dismantled.
The state ought to issue vouchers for parents to use to fund their children’s education.
CLAIM: Most Americans need to
SUPPORT According to the latest
government figures, most Americans are overweight.
WARRANT: Exercise can enable weight
Warrant = bridge between claim and support
Connecting abstract and general
(deductive reasoning= general to specific)
the warrant = the major premise of
the syllogism (a categorical rule)
the support = the minor premise (a
specific instance or case)
the claim = the logical conclusion
derived from these two premises
QUALIFICATIONS that acknowledge the limits of your
Most Americans need to exercise more.
SUPPORT According to the
most Americans are overweight.
can enable weight loss.
However, strenuous exercise is not
appropriate for those with certain health conditions.
Establishes common ground
Lines of argument
Good reasons (Supports/Warrants)
Advantages and disadvantages of views (Qualifications)
Explains why your view is better
Elaborates the implications of your claim
The German poet Goethe once wrote, “Treat people as if they were what they ought to be and you help them to become what they are capable of being.”
Goethe’s statement might be implied to schools, government, social services, business, even to families— any place, really, where people interact with each other. Is Goethe just expressing an unattainable principle of human behavior, or does his ideal have real-life applicability? In a wellorganized essay, comment on the validity of
Goethe’s statement as a realistic guide to personal relationships. To support your point of view, you may draw evidence from your reading, studies, observation, and personal experiences.