clause - Laing Middle School

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Sentence Structure
What is a Clause?
A clause is a group of words that contains a
subject and a verb.
subject
verb
• Some students work in the food pantry
because they care about helping hungry
people.
subject
verb
There are two kinds of clauses, independent and
dependent.
Independent Clause
An independent clause expresses a complete
thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
• Some students work in the food panty.
Dependent Clause
A dependent clause does not express a
complete thought and cannot stand alone as a
sentence.
• because they care about helping hungry
people
Subordinate Clauses
A dependent clause, also known as a
subordinate clause, can be joined to an
independent clause to add to the complete
thought that the independent clause
expresses.
• Students also make bag lunches that are
distributed at a shelter.
Simple Sentences
A simple sentence contains one independent
clause and no dependent clauses. Remember
that even a simple sentence can be quite
elaborate. Each of the following sentences
has only a single independent clause.
• Shawn tutors.
• Benita teaches young children acrobatics
after school.
Compound Sentences
A compound sentence contains two or more
independent clauses an no dependent clause.
The clauses in a compound sentence must be
closely related in thought.
• Shawn tutors, and he helps students learn math.
Independent
clause
Independent
clause
Independent clauses can be joined by a comma
and a coordinating conjunction or by a
semicolon.
• Some children have no books, and volunteers
can hold book drives for them.
• Some children have no toys; volunteers can
collect donated toys for them.
Coordinating Conjunctions
For
Or
And
But
Nor
so
Yet
Don’t mistake a simple sentence with a
compound predicate for a compound
sentence. No punctuation should separate
the parts of a compound predicate.
• The Newcomers’ Club wrote a clever script
and then filmed it.
Complex Sentences
A complex sentence contains one independent
clause and one or more dependent clauses.
Most dependent clauses start with words like
when, until, who, where, because, and so that.
Such a clause might tell when something
happened, which person was involved, or
where the event took place.
Dependent
Clause
Independent
Clause
• When we visited, Mrs. Smith shared her
memories of working in a shipyard during
World War II.
Independent
Clause
Dependent
Clause
• Mrs. Smith was a photographer until she was
drafted.
Compound-Complex Sentences
A compound-complex sentence contains two or
more independent clauses and one or more
dependent clauses.
• WhenDependent
our school
celebrates Earth Day, we
clause
Independent clause
sign up for environmental projects, and we try
Independent clause
to complete them all in one day.
Kinds of Dependent Clauses
There are 3 kinds of dependent clauses
1. Adjective clauses
2. Adverb clauses
3. Noun clauses
Adjective Clauses
An adjective clause is a dependent clause used as
an adjective. An adjective clause modifies a
noun or a pronoun. It tells what kind, which
one, how many, or how much.
Modifies noun
Student volunteers read stories to the children
(who were in the daycare center.)
Adjective clause
Adjective Clauses
Adjective clauses are usually introduced by relative
pronouns.
Relative Pronouns
Who
Whom
Whose
That
which
The story, which made them laugh, is about a
monkey.
Notice that a clause that begins with “which” is set off with
commas.
Adverb Clauses
An adverb clause is a dependent clause used as
an adverb. It modifies a verb, an adjective, or
an adverb. An adverb clause might tell where,
when, how, why, to what extent, or under
what conditions.
Adverb Clauses
Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating
conjunctions such as…
Adverb Clauses
As
That
If
While
Because
Where
Even though
When
Than
As if
so
since
Modifies adj.
They were happy because they were going to the zoo
Adverb clause
Adverb Clause
An adverb clause should be followed by a
comma when it comes before an independent
clause. When an adverb clause comes after
an independent clause, a comma may or may
not be needed before it.
• When the field trip ended, the volunteers
took the children back to the daycare center.
• The volunteers took the children back to the
daycare center when the field trip ended.
Noun Clauses
A noun clause is a dependent clause used as a
noun. Like a noun, a noun clause can serve as
a subject, a direct object, an indirect object,
an object of a preposition, or a predicate
noun.
Noun clause serving as subject
• What frustrates many physically challenged
people is the problem of getting around.
Noun Clauses
Noun clause serving as a direct object
• Volunteers know that physically challenged
people do not want special treatment.
Noun clause serving as an indirect object
• Christopher will tell whoever is volunteering
the locations of the elevators.
Noun Clauses
Nouns clauses are introduced by words such as…
That
How
When
Where
Whether
Why
What
Whatever
Who
Whom
Whoever
Whomever
Which
whichever
If you can substitute the word something or someone
for a clause in a sentence, it is a noun clause.
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