How does the First Amendment Protect Free Expression? Why is Protecting Free Expression Important? The Founders believed freedom to express your opinions was essential for a free government It isn’t easy to tolerate the free speech of people with whom you STRONGLY DISAGREE The pressure to suppress free expression is powerful for the majority group or the government There are many reasons to support Free Speech Promotes Individual Growth and Human Dignity ○ Right to thing about an issue and arrive at your own conclusion (morality, politics, etc) Advances Knowledge ○ New ideas come from free discussions. Can be the foundation of future discoveries Necessary Part of a Representative Government ○ Government is supposed to respond to the will of the people. People need access of information, ideas, & various points of views. Then they can inform their representative as to their views Vital to bring about Peaceful Social Change ○ Provides a safety valve for those with STRONG OPINIONS. This allows people to try to convince others that their views are valid Protection of ALL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS ○ Allows a person to stand up and protect their/others rights Early America – How was Freedom of Expression protected? SEDITION – early on, it was illegal to write anything that went against the government. LIBEL – publishing anti-government stuff also illegal At first, the view was that no one should be able to print malicious or false accusations against the government The Founders feared the government might interfere with a free press. This fear was realized when Congress passed the SEDITION ACT of 1798. This made it illegal to publish "any false, scandalous and malicious writing," The Republicans won the next elections based on defending political freedoms against Congressional acts Thomas Jefferson said, “Our liberty depends on freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being lost.” Trial of John Peter Zenger 1735 – Zenger charged with “Seditious Libel”. His lawyer argued that what Zenger published was the truth and thus not libel The Judge ruled that the truth was not a defense, that if Zenger published the material, he was guilty The Jury ignored the judge and found him “not guilty” because what he published was the truth This case, became a nation, established the freedom of the press It also established the importance of a jury, to check the power of the courts When Freedom of Expression has been suppressed There have been pressures throughout history to suppress UNPOPULAR IDEAS, especially during war time Civil War – Congress made it a federal offense to send abolitionist literature through the mail From WWI – 1850’s : The fear of communism and socialism caused the government to enact various laws to limit those ideas. These led to several Supreme Court cases challenging the government’s power to limit free expression of ideas 1960’s and after – the number of times the government has tried to limit free expression has dropped dramatically Activity #3 Questions What rights, values, and interests of individuals and society might be promoted or endangered by the position that advocates limiting the freedom to express antidemocratic ideas? 2) What rights, values and interests of individuals and society might be promoted or endangered by the position that advocates limiting freedom of expression rarely, if ever, no matter how dangerous or obnoxious the expressed ideas my be? 3) After the discussion, reflect on whether YOUR OWN OPINIONS on this issue were changed? Explain WHY or WHY NOT 1) Commonly Accepted Limitations on Freedom of Expression Expression must be truthful to be protected Expression cannot interfere with another’s rights Liberty is not a license to do anything one pleases In some cases, limiting freedom to speak may actually increase a person’s ability to be heard. Rules of how one speaks at meetings or in a debate Cannot be really loud in a residential area in the middle of the night How may Governments Limit Expression? The Supreme Court has allowed some limitations Laws may not discriminate unfairly on the basis of the content of the expression or the speaker ○ Schools can limit passing out literature on campus that has not been approved ○ Cannot single out a person who holds an unpopular belief Time, place, and manner restrictions must be content-neutral and applied fairly ○ Speech can be limited to a specific time or place (obtain permits) Regulations on expression cannot be vague ○ Rule prohibiting “disrespectful speech that interferes with the public good” Regulations must not be overly broad and must be implemented by the “least restrictive means” ○ After one demonstration turns violent, banning all political demonstrations would be too broad How do wars and emergencies affect Free Speech and Press? During wars and emergencies, free speech is often suppressed Governments seek to limit dissent or criticism in the name of defense The government hoped to stop challenges to the type of government we had by limiting unpopular ideas when the country was fearful of communism (Red Scare) 1969 – The Supreme Court ruled on Free Speech and Press in a way that was far more tolerant of inflammatory speech Brandenburg Test: “ fashioned the principle that the constitutional guarantees of free speech and press do not permit a state to forbid or proscribe advocacy of the use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action.” 911 Terrorist Attacks have renewed the call to limit the free speech and press of some who hold unpopular ideas Review Questions How does freedom of expression contribute to individual liberty and good government? 2. What forms of expression does the First Amendment protect? 3. What are time, place and manner restrictions? 4. How might new forms of communication, such as the Internet, give rise to important First Amendment issues? 1.