Lesson 1 – An Introduction Learn about the Baroque era of music Discover one of the most famous Baroque composers Listen period to some music from the Baroque Refers to a period in time from 1600-1750 More elaborate playing styles and ornamentation, greater choice of instruments Developments Vocal in notation forms Opera, Mass, Oratorio and Concerto were established – we will discuss these later in the week Can we name any Baroque composers? German composer, regarded as one of the most famous and influential composers of all time During his lifetime he was widely know as an organist, rather than a composer Wrote a variety of music; including keyboard music, chamber music, orchestral music and large-scale works such as opera Passacaglia and Fugue in Cm: J.S. Bach Passacaglia: Variations over a ground bass. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ie52xH8V2L4 Task: Listen to an excerpt from the piece and write down as many musical concepts as you can hear. If it makes it easier, you can group them under the headings: • Style • Melody/Harmony • Rhythm/Tempo • Texture/Structure/Form • Timbre/dynamics Passacaglia Ground Bass Any others? Repetition Organ Canon in D: Pachelbel - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcJuZIUeBME Task: Listen to an excerpt from the piece and follow the score above - write down as many musical concepts as you can see/hear. Pachelbel’s Canon is a combination of the forms canon and ground bass. The 3 violins play a canon and the bass part (basso continuo) plays a ground bass. Also: Repetition Imitation Ornament Trill Counter Melody Round – where parts enter one after another, playing the exact same melody. Like singing “London’s Burning”! Organ – keyboard instrument usually found in churches. Usually has more than one keyboard. Ornament – short, extra notes added to decorate a melody. Repetition – a musical idea heard more than once. Imitation – melody is immediately copied in another part. Canon – strict imitation. Parts enter after each other playing the exact melody (see Round) Trill – fast, repeated movement between two adjacent/neighbour notes. Counter Melody – a second, complimentary melody played at the same time as the main melody. Ground Bass – a repeated bass line, while parts above vary. Basso Continuo – Baroque bass line, played by cello/bass/bassoon/harpsichord/organ Passacaglia – variations over a ground bass. Lesson 2 – The Concerto Learn about the solo concerto in the Baroque era Look at the use of ornamentation in Baroque music Learn to recognise different textures in music from the Baroque era 1. What is the period of time that is referred to as the Baroque era? 2. Name a famous Baroque composer. 3. What are some characteristics of music from the Baroque period? 4. Complete the sentence: “A _____ is where parts enter immediately after each other playing exactly the same melody.” 5. Complete the sentence: “The name given to the bass line in Baroque music, often played by the cello, bass, bassoon or harpsichord/organ, is known as the _____ _________.” 6. What is a Passacaglia? There are two types of concerti in the Baroque period – the solo concerto and the concerto grosso. Concerto is the name given to a work for a solo instrument accompanied by a larger group, usually an orchestra. In the Baroque, a concerto would usually have 3 sections, or ‘movements’ – fast, slow, fast. We will discuss concerto grosso later in the week. Solo instrument would play an embellished melodic line, adding ornaments for decoration… Trill: fast, repeated movement between two adjacent/neighbour notes. Acciaccatura: a ‘crushed’ note – a very short note played just before, or on, the beat. Mordent: an ornament where the main note is sounded, then the note above, then the main note again. What do you think an inverted mordent could be? Listen to this movement from a violin concerto, by the famous Baroque composer Vivaldi. Listen out for the ornaments in the solo violin part… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRxofEmo3HA There is a lot of repetition and imitation in this piece, how does Vivaldi create interest in the music? What ornaments do you hear? • Contrast in dynamics, timbre and addition of ornaments • Trills and mordents can be heard ‘Texture’ in music refers to the way the rhythms in different parts interact and intertwine with each other. Look at this example from “Spring” below – see how the accompanying parts move all at the same time… 1min 58secs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRxofEmo3HA This is known as homophonic movement – when all the parts move together rhythmically, they ‘sound together’. Watch the first movement of J.S. Bach’s Double Violin Concerto – listen to how the violins’ rhythms weave around each other at different times… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJh6i-t_I1Q This is called polyphonic movement – when the parts weave in and out independently of each other, literally ‘different sounds or voices’. Also referred to as contrapuntal. Listen carefully to the end of this first movement again, what do you notice about the last chord of the piece? Does it differ at all to what you were expecting? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJh 6i-t_I1Q Mvt. 1 ends at 4:19 Tierce de Picardie: the final chord of a piece in a minor key is changed to major, e.g. the first movement in A minor ends in an A major chord. Concerto – a work for solo instrument accompanied by orchestra. Homophonic – when parts move rhythmically at the same time. Polyphonic – when parts move rhythmically at different times, independently from each other. Contrapuntal – Texture in which each of two or more parts has independent melodic interest, similar meaning to polyphonic. Tierce de Picardie – when a piece in a minor key ends in a major chord. Acciaccatura – an ornament where a short, ‘crushed’ note is added before the main note either before, or on, the beat. Mordent – an ornament where the main note is sounded, then the note above, then the main note again. Lesson 3 – The Concerto Grosso Learn about the concerto grosso form from the Baroque era Listen to excerpts from one of J.S. Bach’s famous Brandenburg Concertos 1. What is the name for a piece for a solo instrument, accompanied by orchestra? 2. What is a Tierce de Picardie? 3. The series of violin concertos called “The Four Seasons” were written by which Baroque composer? 4. What is the name of this ornament? What does it mean? 5. What is the name of this ornament? What does it mean? 6. What is the difference between homophonic and polyphonic? In a concerto grosso, there is a group of soloists rather than just one. This group of soloists are called the concertino and group that accompany are called the ripieno. Concertino Ripieno The concertino and ripieno are often used in a ‘question and answer’ style and frequently contrast with each other. The main theme, usually announced and played by the ripieno, is known as the ritornello. This is frequently repeated at points during the piece. Listen out for the basso continuo – it continues for the whole piece, even throughout the solo concertino sections. What instruments could be playing the basso continuo? Listen to this movement from a Concerto Grosso by Handel – movement begins at 1:50 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAvFbMCpGDo Listen out for the clear contrast in textures from the concertino and ripieno groups Listen out for the repetition and use of sequences – when a melodic phrase is immediately repeated at a higher or lower pitch. Sequence: A melodic phrase which is immediately repeated at a higher or lower pitch. Concerto Grosso: A type of Baroque concerto in which a group of soloists (Concertino) is combined and contrasted with a larger group of (Ripieno). Concertino: The name given to the small group of soloists, as opposed to the accompanying group (Ripieno). Ripieno: The main group of instrumentalists, that accompany the soloists (Concertino). Ritornello: The main theme played by, usually, the Ripieno group. It may frequently return throughout the movement. Lesson 4 – Baroque Vocal Music Look at types of vocal music from the Baroque era – Highers we will also look at 2 concepts from the Renaissance… Baroque opera by Purcell Drama set to music – has soloists and a chorus, acting and accompanied by orchestra “When I am Laid In Earth” – aria sung by Dido Aria begins at 1:31 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACY03VwWmnA Opera – A drama set to music with soloists, chorus, acting and orchestral accompaniment Aria – A song in an opera or oratorio with orchestral accompaniment. Chorus – a group of singers with several people to each part (like a choir) – the music written for these singers. Aria from an opera Gives the character time to express their emotions. The memorable bit! Listen to this aria and write down as many concepts as you can hear. Think about: • The • The • The • The type of voice style of accompaniment instruments tonality Then watch and follow the score to help identify answers – begins at 0:57 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGQq3HcOB0Y Recitative More speech-like, moves the plot forward in between arias and choruses Often features question and answer type dialogue, or rapid repetition of the one note Much less melodic than arias http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIIQrfGevsI Pre-Baroque = Renaissance Plainchant Mode/Modal Baroque Oratorio Mass Plainchant – unaccompanied and sacred No regular time signature – they follow the rhythm of the Latin text They are modal – written in a mode. Mode – a type of early scale, used before major and minor scales were invented. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GbiZulU70J0 Large-scale work for orchestra plus singers – soloists, chorus and orchestra. Sacred – not secular like opera. Oratorios tend to take inspiration from biblical stories or the lives of saints. Similar to opera, in that they feature arias, recitative and choruses. Can be performed with scenery and props, but strictly speaking these are concert pieces. Handel’s Messiah is one of the most famous oratorios of all time. Watch a performance of a chorus from the work… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUZEtVbJT5c Sacred choral composition Latin text Can be a cappella accompanied by instrumental obbligatos or accompanied by full orchestra. Characterised by 5 distinct movements – 1. Kyrie 2. Gloria 3. Credo 4. Sanctus and Benedictus. 5. Agnus Dei Listen to the beginning of each movement from Bach’s Mass in B minor and listen carefully to notice each of the following features… 1. Kyrie - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKiCphIiO6c 2. Gloria – imitation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izVzruuk1lc 3. Credo – imitation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ulxV7WOC5xI 4. Sanctus and Benedictus – obbligato - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcSteU9o1aA 5. Agnus Dei – imitation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5Ea4j-Si3M Opera – A drama set to music, with soloists, chorus acting and orchestral accompaniment. Aria – A song in an opera or oratorio with orchestral accompaniment Chorus – (i) A group of singers with several people to each part. (ii) The music written for these singers. Recitative – A type of vocal writing where the music follows the rhythm of speech. It is used in operas and oratorios to move the story or plot on. Plainchant – Unaccompanied melody set to the words of the Roman Catholic liturgy. Modal, and have no regular metre – they follow the rhythm of the words. Mode – a type of early scale used before major/minor. Used in Plainchant. Oratorio – a large sacred work for soloists, chorus and orchestra – usually a concert piece. Often based on biblical stories or the lives of saints. Mass – A large sacred work containing very specific movements – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus and Agnus Dei.