File - Duncanrig Secondary School Faculty of Music and

Lesson 1 – An Introduction
 Learn
about the Baroque era of music
 Discover
one of the most famous Baroque
 Listen
to some music from the Baroque
 Refers
to a period in time from 1600-1750
 More
elaborate playing styles and
ornamentation, greater choice of
 Developments
 Vocal
in notation
forms Opera, Mass, Oratorio and
Concerto were established – we will discuss
these later in the week
Can we name any Baroque composers?
 German
composer, regarded
as one of the most famous and
influential composers of all time
 During
his lifetime he was widely know as an
organist, rather than a composer
 Wrote
a variety of music; including keyboard
music, chamber music, orchestral music and
large-scale works such as opera
Passacaglia and Fugue in Cm: J.S. Bach
Passacaglia: Variations over a ground bass.
Task: Listen to an excerpt from the piece and
write down as many musical concepts as you can
hear. If it makes it easier, you can group them
under the headings:
• Style
• Melody/Harmony
• Rhythm/Tempo
• Texture/Structure/Form
• Timbre/dynamics
 Passacaglia
 Ground
Any others?
 Repetition
 Organ
Canon in D: Pachelbel -
Task: Listen to an excerpt from the piece and
follow the score above - write down as many
musical concepts as you can see/hear.
Pachelbel’s Canon is a combination of the
forms canon and ground bass. The 3 violins
play a canon and the bass part (basso
continuo) plays a ground bass.
 Repetition
 Imitation
 Ornament
 Trill
 Counter Melody
Round – where parts enter one after another, playing the exact
same melody. Like singing “London’s Burning”!
Organ – keyboard instrument usually found in churches. Usually
has more than one keyboard.
Ornament – short, extra notes added to decorate a melody.
Repetition – a musical idea heard more than once.
Imitation – melody is immediately copied in another part.
Canon – strict imitation. Parts enter after each other playing the
exact melody (see Round)
Trill – fast, repeated movement between two
adjacent/neighbour notes.
Counter Melody – a second, complimentary melody played at the
same time as the main melody.
Ground Bass – a repeated bass line, while parts above vary.
Basso Continuo – Baroque bass line, played by
Passacaglia – variations over a ground bass.
Lesson 2 – The Concerto
Learn about the solo concerto in the Baroque era
Look at the use of ornamentation in Baroque
Learn to recognise different textures in music
from the Baroque era
1. What is the period of time that is
referred to as the Baroque era?
2. Name a famous Baroque composer.
3. What are some characteristics of music
from the Baroque period?
4. Complete the sentence: “A _____ is where parts
enter immediately after each other playing exactly the
same melody.”
5. Complete the sentence: “The name given to the bass
line in Baroque music, often played by the cello, bass,
bassoon or harpsichord/organ, is known as the _____
6. What is a Passacaglia?
There are two types of concerti in the Baroque
period – the solo concerto and the concerto
Concerto is the name given to a work for a solo
instrument accompanied by a larger group, usually
an orchestra.
In the Baroque, a concerto would usually have 3
sections, or ‘movements’ – fast, slow, fast.
We will discuss concerto grosso later in the
 Solo
instrument would play an embellished
melodic line, adding ornaments for
Trill: fast, repeated movement between two
adjacent/neighbour notes.
Acciaccatura: a ‘crushed’ note – a very short
note played just before, or on, the beat.
Mordent: an ornament where the main note
is sounded, then the note above, then the
main note again.
What do you think an inverted mordent
could be?
Listen to this movement from a violin concerto, by the
famous Baroque composer Vivaldi. Listen out for the
ornaments in the solo violin part…
There is a lot of repetition and imitation in this
piece, how does Vivaldi create interest in the
What ornaments do you hear?
• Contrast in dynamics, timbre and addition of
• Trills and mordents can be heard
‘Texture’ in music refers to the way the rhythms in
different parts interact and intertwine with each other.
Look at this example from “Spring” below – see how
the accompanying parts move all at the same time…
1min 58secs
This is known as homophonic movement – when all the
parts move together rhythmically, they ‘sound together’.
Watch the first movement of J.S. Bach’s Double Violin Concerto –
listen to how the violins’ rhythms weave around each other at
different times…
This is called polyphonic movement – when the parts weave
in and out independently of each other, literally ‘different
sounds or voices’. Also referred to as contrapuntal.
Listen carefully to the end of this first movement
again, what do you notice about the last chord of the
piece? Does it differ at all to what you were
Mvt. 1 ends at 4:19
Tierce de Picardie: the final chord of a piece in
a minor key is changed to major, e.g. the first
movement in A minor ends in an A major chord.
Concerto – a work for solo instrument accompanied by
Homophonic – when parts move rhythmically at the
same time.
Polyphonic – when parts move rhythmically at different
times, independently from each other.
Contrapuntal – Texture in which each of two or more
parts has independent melodic interest, similar
meaning to polyphonic.
Tierce de Picardie – when a piece in a minor key ends
in a major chord.
Acciaccatura – an ornament where a short, ‘crushed’
note is added before the main note either before, or
on, the beat.
Mordent – an ornament where the main note is
sounded, then the note above, then the main note
Lesson 3 – The Concerto Grosso
 Learn
about the concerto grosso form from
the Baroque era
 Listen
to excerpts from one of J.S. Bach’s
famous Brandenburg Concertos
1. What is the name for a piece for a solo
instrument, accompanied by orchestra?
2. What is a Tierce de Picardie?
3. The series of violin concertos called
“The Four Seasons” were written by which
Baroque composer?
4. What is the name of this ornament?
What does it mean?
5. What is the name of this ornament?
What does it mean?
6. What is the difference between homophonic
and polyphonic?
In a concerto grosso, there is a group of soloists rather
than just one. This group of soloists are called the
concertino and group that accompany are called the
The concertino and ripieno are often used in a
‘question and answer’ style and frequently
contrast with each other.
The main theme, usually announced and played
by the ripieno, is known as the ritornello. This
is frequently repeated at points during the
Listen out for the basso continuo – it continues
for the whole piece, even throughout the solo
concertino sections. What instruments could be
playing the basso continuo?
 Listen
to this movement from a Concerto
Grosso by Handel –
movement begins at 1:50
 Listen
out for the clear contrast in textures
from the concertino and ripieno groups
Listen out for the repetition and use of sequences –
when a melodic phrase is immediately repeated at a
higher or lower pitch.
Sequence: A melodic phrase which is immediately repeated at a higher
or lower pitch.
Concerto Grosso: A type of Baroque concerto in which a group of soloists
(Concertino) is combined and contrasted with a larger group of (Ripieno).
Concertino: The name given to the small group of soloists, as opposed to
the accompanying group (Ripieno).
Ripieno: The main group of instrumentalists, that accompany the soloists
Ritornello: The main theme played by, usually, the Ripieno group. It may
frequently return throughout the movement.
Lesson 4 – Baroque Vocal Music
 Look
at types of vocal music from the
Baroque era – Highers we will also look at 2
concepts from the Renaissance…
 Baroque
opera by Purcell
 Drama set to music – has soloists and a
chorus, acting and accompanied by orchestra
 “When I am Laid In Earth” – aria sung by Dido
Aria begins at 1:31
Opera – A drama set to music with soloists,
chorus, acting and orchestral
Aria – A song in an opera or oratorio with
orchestral accompaniment.
Chorus – a group of singers with several
people to each part (like a choir) – the music
written for these singers.
 Aria
from an opera
 Gives the character time to express their
 The memorable bit!
Listen to this aria and write down as many concepts as you can
hear. Think about:
• The
• The
• The
• The
type of voice
style of accompaniment
Then watch and follow the score to help identify answers – begins at 0:57
 More speech-like, moves the plot forward in
between arias and choruses
 Often features question and answer type
dialogue, or rapid repetition of the one note
 Much less melodic than arias
Pre-Baroque = Renaissance
 Plainchant
– unaccompanied and sacred
 No regular time signature – they follow the
rhythm of the Latin text
 They
are modal – written in a mode.
 Mode
– a type of early scale, used before
major and minor scales were invented.
Large-scale work for orchestra plus singers –
soloists, chorus and orchestra.
Sacred – not secular like opera. Oratorios tend
to take inspiration from biblical stories or the
lives of saints.
Similar to opera, in that they feature arias,
recitative and choruses.
Can be performed with scenery and props, but
strictly speaking these are concert pieces.
Handel’s Messiah is one of the most famous
oratorios of all time. Watch a performance of a
chorus from the work…
 Sacred
choral composition
 Latin text
 Can be a cappella accompanied by
instrumental obbligatos or accompanied by
full orchestra.
 Characterised by 5 distinct movements –
1. Kyrie
2. Gloria
3. Credo
4. Sanctus and
5. Agnus Dei
Listen to the beginning of each movement
from Bach’s Mass in B minor and listen
carefully to notice each of the following
1. Kyrie -
2. Gloria – imitation -
3. Credo – imitation -
4. Sanctus and
Benedictus – obbligato -
5. Agnus Dei – imitation -
Opera – A drama set to music, with soloists, chorus acting and
orchestral accompaniment.
Aria – A song in an opera or oratorio with orchestral
Chorus – (i) A group of singers with several people to each
(ii) The music written for these singers.
Recitative – A type of vocal writing where the music follows
the rhythm of speech. It is used in operas and oratorios to
move the story or plot on.
Plainchant – Unaccompanied melody set to the words of the
Roman Catholic liturgy. Modal, and have no regular metre
– they follow the rhythm of the words.
Mode – a type of early scale used before major/minor. Used
in Plainchant.
Oratorio – a large sacred work for soloists, chorus and
orchestra – usually a concert piece. Often based on
biblical stories or the lives of saints.
Mass – A large sacred work containing very specific
movements – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus and
Agnus Dei.