If you were a new settler in Africa where would you want to live? Why? (Provide specific reasons according to geography) AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS How did physical geography influence early African settlements? -----------------------------Section 1 What landform makes up North Africa? (see video) The large area of the Sahara desert in northern Africa forced people to move south, into the savannas of west Africa. The Sahara Desert What type of vegetation region covers more than 40% of Africa? (Animated Map) Savannas are flat grasslands that have few trees. Savannas cover most of central, east, and southern Africa. Describe this type of region. What vegetation zones make up west Africa? Desert, grasslands, and forests. Which rivers and lakes are dominant in western Africa? Senegal, Niger, and Benue rivers. Describe some environments Africans had to adapt to. Dry Sahara Desert Lake Volta and Lake Chad Flat Savannas Mountains in east Africa Tropical rain forests in central Africa What are some causes of desertification? (See desertification video) -----------------------------Bantu People Who were Bantu people; where were they from? (Read History of West Africa People, p.1) Climate change and human activity, such as overgrazing, burning wood or dry grasses for fuel, and stripping the land of vegetation. West African people who spoke more than 450 similar languages based on the parent language of Bantu. From the map on p.339, describe Bantu migrations. (Animated Map, Bantu Migrations) Bantu people migrated south and east around the rain forests and savannas. (Read History of African People, p.3) Explain kinship, clans, and the way of life for many Africans. (Read Work and Culture, discuss). Kinship groups (families) formed governments. People of similar clans often followed the same rules of culture. Many Africans farmed as a way of life. 1. My website – Classzone Online Book – Animated History – Chapters 11-15 – Chapter 12 – Modern Griots 2. My website – Web Resources – Chapter 12, Africa – Mr. Dowling’s Africa (Griots) 3. My website – World History Documents – Chapter 12 Africa – African Folk Tales Explain what griots were and why they were important. (See the animated map and Mr. Dowling’s site.) Explain animism and provide an example. (from textbook) Griots were story tellers who memorized African history. Without griots, history would have been lost. Animism is a religious belief that natural objects have souls or spirits. Native Americans’ religion was also based on animism. Read the article of African Folk Tales. Choose a few of the animals that are interesting to you and take notes that you can share with the class. My website – World History Documents – Chpt 12, Africa – African Folk Tales Section 2 - Ghana 1. Ghana – 800s–1000s List the three West African trading empires from 800s – 1500s. 2. Mali – 1200s–1400s 3. Songhai – 1400s–1500s (Animated Map, Trading Empires) Explain where gold and salt were located. What did this cause? (Listen to and read Starting with a Story, Trading Gold for Salt.) The forests of west Africa had gold and north Africa had salt. The TransSaharan trade routes were formed to exchange salt, gold, food, and slaves. How was trade different after camels came into use? How did Ghana’s king help the empire become wealthy and powerful? (Trading Gold for Salt article) Camels can cover great distances without food or water, known as “ships of the desert.” He kept gold a secret, limiting its trade, and taxed other goods. Who were the Berbers? (Traveling with the Berbers Video) What caused the fall of Ghana? (Fall of Ghana Article) Muslims from northern Africa. They introduced Arabic and Islam to west African empires. Almoravids, Muslims from northern Africa, declared war on Ghana and captured the capital city of Koumbi Saleh FALL OF GHANA ARTICLE Sometimes, in non-fiction writing, we find text that is difficult to read or understand. 1. Listen to the article using Microsoft Word on your Surface. 2. Identify sections that are difficult to understand. 3. Identify factors that may have caused the fall of Ghana. Mali What did Sundiata, leader of the Malinke people, do to improve Mali? (See Mr. Dowling) Describe Mansa Musa and his hajj. (See Mr. Dowling) Sundiata expanded Mali, re-established gold/salt trade, and expanded trade routes. Sundiata also developed Timbuktu, supported farming, and combined Islam with his traditional beliefs. Mansa Musa allowed his subjects to practice their own religion. He made a pilgrimage to Mecca which brought attention to Africa. How did Mansa Musa’s death affect the empire of Mali? Descendants argued about who should rule, which caused internal fighting. The Songhai in the east and Berbers in the north gained strength. How were Sundiata and Mansa Musa’s religious beliefs different? Sundiata combined traditional beliefs with Islam, Mansa Musa was a pure Muslim. (Sub Saharan Survey Video) Songhai Why did Sunni Ali kill people in Timbuktu? (Islam comes to Timbuktu video, Explore Timbuktu on maps) How did Askia Muhammad expand the Songhai Empire? (Songhai video) What happened to Askia Muhammad? (see p. 346 inset) He was asked by Muslim leaders to help remove Berbers from the city. Askia took control of the salt mines, organized a strong government, and spread Islam through scholars. His son banished him to an island on the Niger river, until a year before he died. Section 3 Explain how Aksum became a powerful trading kingdom. Its location on the Horn of Africa allowed access to the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean and Nile River. What was Aksum’s main trading port? Adulis What were Aksum’s achievements? Great stone pillars, the written language Ge’ez, and farmers adapted their land with terraces. (Aksum video) Why was Kilwa an historically important city? (Swahili Activity) Explain what zimbabwes are and in which empire were they located? (Find zimbabwes) African and Arab traders mixed, creating the language of Swahili, and many Africans converted to Islam. Zimbabwes are settlements circled by large stone walls. Shona Empire What was the Great Enclosure of the Great Zimbabwe used for? The Great Enclosure was large and significant; used as a home for kings and queens. Describe the trade route of gold through Great Zimbabwe. Gold originated in west Africa, traveled through Great Zimbabwe, and ended in India and China. (Zimbabwe Activity) Briefly explain the history of Kongo: • Where was it located? North and South of the Congo River Basin. • Who was the leader? Afonso I • What was the national religion? Roman Catholic Who did it trade with? Portuguese What was the outcome of that trade? Slave trade drained West Africa’s population. • • Name:____________________ Prepare for your test… Provide specific examples of cultural diffusion between the Bantu-speaking people and other societies. Name:____________________ How did Geography affect early African civilizations? How did human factors such as leadership, trade, and empires shape African civilizations?