Four Basic Methods

advertisement
Composition





Begins with a general statement
Follows with specifics
The general statement is the TOPIC
SENTENCE
The specifics are DETAILS that prove the
topic sentence
Topic sentence needs keywords for the topic,
cp, and point of development
http://rhetoric.ln.edu.hk/Paragraph%20Development/Paragraph05.html
Beneficial and harmful links exist between human health and
ocean health. While several important medical treatments are
based on chemicals discovered in marine animals,
increasingly common phenomena such as harmful algal
blooms have demonstrated their negative impact on human
health. The health of marine ecosystems is affected by
human activities such as pollution, global warming, and over
fishing. But human health in turn depends on thriving ocean
ecosystems.




Begins with many specifics
Ends with a general statement
The specifics are details that will help lead to
a conclusion
The general statement at the end is the
TOPIC SENTENCE or the CONCLUSION
drawn from the details
http://rhetoric.ln.edu.hk/Paragraph%20Development/Paragraph05.html
Oceans have ingredients which can benefit human health. Several
important medical treatments are based on chemicals discovered in
marine animals. On the other hand, increasingly common phenomena
such as harmful algal blooms have demonstrated their negative impact on
human health. The health of marine ecosystems is affected by human
activities such as pollution, global warming, and over fishing. But at the
same time, human health depends on thriving ocean ecosystems. We need
a better understanding of the many ways marine organisms affect human
health, both positively by providing drugs and bio-products, and
negatively by causing human ailments.



Begins with a general statement
Follows with specifics
Ends with a general statement
The general statement is the TOPIC SENTENCE
The specifics are DETAILS that prove the topic
sentence
 The general statement at the end is the
CLINCHER SENTENCE or the CONCLUSION
drawn from the details







Begins with specifics
General statement is in the middle of the
paragraph
Ends with specifics
This paragraph usually reflects a cause and
effect relationship
The topic sentence is in the middle of the
paragraph.

KEYWORDS







Topic
Controlling purpose
Type of paper
Point of development
Transitional word
EXAMPLE
The first type of violence used by the Ku Klux Klan
that instilled fear into the freedmen was appearing at
night dressed in white.
•POD 1 – Using white robes
A.Topic sentence – The KKK used white robes
to frighten Freedmen and show their white
supremacy.
B.-Identify the klan members
C. what they believed in (POD 1 card 1)
D.– why they wore white (POD 1 card 2)
E.how this frightened freedmen (POD 1 card
3)
NOTE: Read your note cards then put them aside. Without the note cards, write the
paragraph without looking at them. When completed, look at your notes and document
or insert direct quotes.
The first type of violence used by the Ku Klux Klan that instilled fear
into the freedmen was appearing at night dressed in white. Most of the
members of the KKK were WASP, white, Anglo-Saxon protestants. They
saw the color “white” as a symbol of purity. Since the klan wanted to keep
the race pure, the white robes became a representation of their believing
that the white race was the pure and superior race. In addition, the
members did not want their identities known so the robes served a second
purpose of hiding the faces of the klan members. Consequently, these
white robed men whose identities were concealed, rode toward the homes
of black men at night carrying torches appearing through the dark as ghostlike spirits haunting and frightening the blacks they tormented into
following the Jim Crow laws that governed the South after Reconstruction.
With MLA, after a paraphrase or direct quote, the citations need to appear to give credit
to the author. The information appears like this (last 4). The period goes AFTER the ).
The first type of violence used by the Ku Klux Klan that instilled fear into the freedmen
was appearing at night dressed in white. Most of the members of the KKK were WASP,
white, Anglo-Saxon protestants. They “saw the color “white” as a symbol of purity”
(Smith 2). Since the klan wanted to keep the race pure, the white robes became a
representation of their believing that the white race was the pure and superior race
(Jones 4-5). In addition, the members did not want their identities known so the robes
served a second purpose of hiding the faces of the klan members. Consequently,
these white robed men whose identities were concealed, rode toward the homes of
black men at night carrying torches appearing through the dark as ghost-like spirits
haunting and frightening the blacks they tormented into following the Jim Crow laws
that governed the South after Reconstruction (“Rider” ¶).

To explain
 An explanatory paragraph is a paragraph that
explains a certain issue, tells how or why
something happens, and explores the causes and
effects of certain events.


To entertain
To argue or persuade


Definition
Description
 Chronological
 Spatial
 Analytical






Compare
Contrast
Statistics
Cause and effect
Single example
Multiple examples


Problem/solution
Question/answer











Cause
Effect
since
because
due to
as a result of
thus
therefore
hence
if...then
Similarities
Differences
similar to
both
also
as well
too
in contrast
however
on the other
hand
differs from
while
unlike













Order
Time
first,
second,
third...
in the
beginning
then
before
at last
finally
recently
when
previously
afterwards



Topic sentence
Definition
Example




Topic sentence
Definition
Statistics



Topic sentence
Examples


Topic sentence
Events in chronological
order


Topic sentence
Decription




Cause
Topic sentence
Effect
Effect
Topic sentence
cause
 Topic sentence
Element one of
comparison
Transition
Element two of
comparison
Clincher
Topic sentence
Element one of
contrast
Transition
Element two of
contrast
Clincher
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards