Summary Questions_answers

1) Which time step best represents eating (ingestion)?
Explain your reasoning.
Time 0–food coming from outside the
body to inside the body…but not broken
2) What building block is starch broken down into?
What building blocks are fats broken down into?
Fatty Acids and Glycerol
What building blocks are proteins broken down
Amino Acids
3) In what time step are most of the large molecules
(carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) broken down into
their building blocks/subunits?
TIME 1-2
4) What happens to a protein in our digestive tract?
Breaks down into amino acids
5) What typically happens to amino acids once they
arrive in the cell?
6)What happens toBroken
a fat molecule in our digestive
into fatty
acids and
7) Compare and contrast glycogen, starch, and cellulose.
• a. What do these molecules have in common?
made of the subunit glucose
• b. What is different between them?
Cellulose has different bonds
- not digested by humans
Starch is stored in plants
Glycogen is stored in animals
Starch: a plant carbohydrate
Glycogen: an animal carbohydrate
8) Some microorganisms that live outside our bodies
can ‘digest’ cellulose. Into what subunits might these
microorganisms be able to digest cellulose?
9) Which time step (0-4) best represents the stages of growth
Time 3-4
and storage?
a. What new molecules are being assembled during these
What we should be solid on right now:
1- What food IS and IS NOT
2- Food molecules and their subunits
3- Chemical Energy = calories
4- How animals use food to grow
• 10) Because fats and oils have 3 fatty acids
attached to a glycerol molecule, they are also
called triglycerides (tri means three). In the
1990s, when very low fat diets became popular,
food manufacturers came out with new "nonfat" baked goods. To create these "non-fat"
baked goods, they replaced the triglycerides
with mono- and di-glycerides. People who ate a
lot of these products found that they did not
lose any weight. Explain why this was so.
- Once the fatty acids and glycerol got to the
cells- they were still reassembled by the cells into
11) A potato has starch but no
glycogen; muscle cells have glycogen
but no starch. Explain how eating a
potato could lead to increased
glycogen in your muscle cells.
- The starch we eat is broken into
glucose in the stomach/small intest
and then reassembled in the muscle
cells as glycogen.
12) Using what you had for lunch yesterday,
describe what happens to each of the major
types of food molecules (carbohydrates, protein,
and fats) as it makes its way from your mouth to
the cells of your body. Be sure to include how
the molecules in your chosen food item could
eventually end up comprising the molecules that
make up your body. (you can draw a picture to
support your explanation too)
This is just a practice question for your
homework assignment.
13. Imagine you ate some fresh vegetables,
lettuce or other types of raw plant material.
– What type of carbohydrate would these
foods likely contain? Starch, cellulose
– What happens to this carbohydrate molecule
during digestion? Starch broken into glucose,
celluloseunbroken goes to
large intestine
– Where does this carbohydrate molecule go
after digestion?
Starch glucose glycogen in muscle cells
celluloseunbroken goes to large intestinewaste
14. We are commonly told, “You are
what you eat!” Discuss the accuracy
of this statement based on what you
have learned so far. How is this
statement true? How is it untrue? Be
VERY specific!
- What you eat is broken down and
reassembled. Some of it is reassembled into
what you ate (fats, proteins) and some of it
(starch) is reassembled into something else
(glycogen) from the starch you ate.
• Look back at your paper entitled “What is the
Function of Food for Animals?” from the entry
“FOOD FOR ANIMALS. Compare what you
checked then and what you know now. How
have your ideas changed? Explain.
• This is simply for your own reflection.
Please complete this question!
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