lecture Eight and Nine

Sport markets and social division
Social injustice
Social inequality
Gender inequality
Ethnic misrepresentation
Social Inequalities
• Inequality of condition – income , education, occupation,
• Inequality of opportunity – the individual and concerned with
degree of freedoms that people have –
Democracy in sport a myth
• In many respects there is NOT a widening degree of
opportunity and a diminishing degree of separatism – rather
the opposite
• Jarvie argues that in Britain there is an obsession with class
and privilege unlike the USA and this is reflected in sports
democracy and opportunity
• Sport reproduces prestige, status and power
Ethnic representation in Sport
• Varying degrees of racism with contemporary examples (CITE)
• Worth examining that dominant white countries and
continents dominate sport governance and decision making
• Ethnic groups amongst lowest participation levels in UK
• Sportscoacing in the UK – Most coaching Volunteers tend to
be white middle class and a misrepresentation of other
societal groups – young, ethnic, older. The structure and social
capital needed is exclusive
• Funding of elite sports – at the expense of participation sport
levels. Global identity is favoured more (curling, cycling,
• Sports Governing bodies do not work hard enough to involve
socially excluded groups
• Minority sports find funding and opportunity harder to come
by – the processes involved can be prohibitive and off putting
• Perceived sport success stories (Collins) should be critically
• Lack of long term evaluation, monitoring or funding
• Notion of short termitis (Coulter)
• More long term strategic planning is called for
Sport and Gender Inequality
Contemporary studies and evidence suggest that more equity is
developing between the genders
However we must look at historical backdrop to inform us
Women's sports/activities very different from men –perceived as
less serious, frivolous, recreational, opposed to male sports brave, courageous, more attractive
Most majority sports governed by men
Females are misrepresented in media, commerce and in the
public perception
Female sports receive less funding and opportunity
Cite examples – bbc sfa etc etc
Take home messages
• Sport and gender remain a very clear example of
social division
• Sport can and must do better to create more equity
across all aspects of society