Fostering Independent Learning PPT

Fostering Independent
Learning In Students
TLI 2013
Presented by:
Dr. Anne Cramer
Dr. Neil Shepard
What do you
want me to do?
We never did
this in class.
Can Dependent Learners
chapter is
this in?
Here’s what
I’ve done so
Is this
This is the plan
I’d like to
Become Self-Directed?
Here is one
This is the
topic I’d like
to research.
Why Independent Learning?
Self-Directed Learners
Able to adapt (Gibbons)
Aware of responsibility (Garrison)
Motivated, persistent, self-disciplined, goal-oriented
Learn more, retain more, apply learning (Knowles)
Better positioned to succeed in a 21st century
environment that values mastery of learning over
mastery of content (Meyer & Rose)
Why Independent Learning?
Benefits of being a self-directed, independent learner
Better Job Performance (Ozer, Simmons, Pink)
Strong Team Relationships (Ozer, Simmons)
More Engaged Citizenship (Ozer, Simmons)
Higher Personal Satisfaction (Pink)
Improved Academic Performance (Knowles)
Example #1: Turn question back
Questions are fantastic opportunities to create
space for stimulating independent learning
“Do I need to write this down?”
Why would you? What would be the purpose?
Does that purpose apply now?
How do you decide what to write down?
Are you willing to take a chance that you won’t
need notes?
Example #2: Turn question back
“May I have a sample from last year?”
What would you use a sample for?
What questions would you be looking to
Where else might you find those answers?
Assignment instructions/guidelines?
Rubric? APA guidelines? Website?
Example #3: Turn question back
“I can’t find the answer...”
Are you being asked for research?
What are you being asked?
Personal opinion? (How might you support it?)
Solve a problem? (What problem? Plan action.)
Analyze a situation? (What situation? Relevant
Quick Brainstorm
What sorts questions have you
heard from students?
How might you respond?
Longer-Term Strategy:
Give general feedback & guidance
 PowerPoint:
Guide learning rather than inform content.
 Note-Taking:
Offer outline – better yet, have students
develop the outline.
 Feedback on assignments:
Suggest general categories for improvement.
A Little History: Learning Theories
Malcolm Knowles: Andragogy (1998)
 Self-Directed, Goal-Oriented, Practical
 Adults already set goals, plan, manage time
Learning Styles (1992)
 Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic
 Over 70 assessments
 No evidence of improvement w/adjusted
 Some evidence . . . use by students increased
Ng & Confessore, 2010
Contemporary Learning Theories
Self-paced, Active Learning
 Khan Academy: 3000+ videos on You-Tube
(Salman Kahn, 2012)
Associative Learning
 Connect to known ideas
(Marcia Conner, 2013; Eric Kandel, 2000)
Contemporary Learning Theories
 Evaluate knowledge, plan, monitor, adjust
(Carnegie Mellon, 2011)
Universal Design for Learning
 Design curriculum in such a way so that all
individuals have equal opportunity to learn
(Meyer & Rose, 2005 )
Independent Learning:
Gradual Shift in Student and Instructor Roles
 Student sets learning objectives, goals
What are you hoping to achieve? How will you get
 Student assesses knowledge base & resources
What do you already know about this? What resources
can you use?
 Student develops plan, identifies processes
What are the key steps and dates?
• Student monitors & assesses own work
What steps have you completed? What do you need to
do next?
Independent Learning:
Gradual Shift in Student and Instructor Roles
 Instructor negotiates student proposals for
learning outcomes, goals
 Instructor encourages reflection & adaptation
 Instructor guides students through selfidentified challenges
 Instructor reviews a student’s assessment of
Gradual Shift: Instructor Roles
Teacher Directed
Student Directed
Decide lesson goals, content
Teach processes to set goals
Present lessons
Teach processes to make
plans, take action
Establish exercises,
Negotiate student proposals
for learning, acting
Monitor completion,
accuracy of work
Guide students through selfdirected challenge activities
Test & grade performance
Review students’ assessment
of own work
Fostering Independent Learning in Students
Can students learn independently?
To some extent, they already do and
they can build on this.
Can we foster independent learning?
Guide rather than prescribe.
Encourage reflection, self-development.
Ensure students have necessary access
Four Suggested Principles (Francom, 2010)
Fostering Self-Directed Learning
Match level of self-direction to student
Move toward self-direction over time
Provide instruction on both subject matter
and self-direction
Promote learning transfer: Try to bridge life
experiences and class experiences
 Consider one of your standard
Identify the main learning objective.
How much structured direction can you remove?
Would the inevitable variation in projects be
Think about possible “leading” questions.
Thank You!
Sources (The official stuff)
Confessore, G. J. & Park, E. (2004). Factor validation of the Learner Autonomy Profile, version 3.0 and
extraction of the short form. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 1 (1), 39 -58.
Conner, M.L. (2013). How Adults Learn. Ageless Learner. Retrieved from
Eberly Center, Carnegie Mellon. (2013). Theory and Research-Based Principles of Learning. Retrieved
Eberly Center, Carnegie Mellon. (2013). Educational Value of Course-Level Learning Objectives/
Outcomes. Retrieved from
Fleming, N.D. and Mills, C. (1992). Not Another Inventory, Rather a Catalyst for Reflection. To Improve
the Academy, 11. 137. Retrieved from
Francom, G. M. (2010). Teach me how to learn: Principles for fostering students' self directed learning
skills. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 7 (1),29-44.
Gibbons, M. (2002). The self-directed learning handbook: Challenging adolescent students to excel.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Garrison, D.R. (1997). Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult Education
Quarterly, 97 (1), 18-33.
Grasha, A.F. (1996). Teaching with style: A practical guide to enhancing learning by understanding
teaching and learning styles. Pittsburgh, PA: Alliance
Guglielmino, L. M. 1977. Development of the self-directed learning readiness scale. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
Kahn, S. (2012). The One-World Schoolhouse: Education Reimaged. [Kindle edition]. Retrieved from
Sources (The official stuff)
Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R.A. (1998). A theory of adult learning: Andragogy. In The adult
learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (5th ed., pp. 35-72).
Woburn: Butterworth Heinemann.
Maddox, Nick, Monique Forte, & Robert Boozer. (2000). Developments in Business Simulation & Experiential
Learning, v. 27.
Meyer, A, & Rose, D.H. (2005) The future is in the margins: The role of technology and disability in
educational reform. In D. H. Rose, A. Meyer & C. Hitchcock (Eds.), The universally designed classroom:
Accessible curriculum and digital technologies (pp. 13-35). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
Ng, S. F. & Confessore, G. J. (2010). The Relationship of Multiple Learning Styles to Levels of Learner
Autonomy. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 7 (1), 1-13.
Ozer, M. (2011). A Moderated Mediation Model of the Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship
Behaviors and Job Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96 (6), 1328-1336. doi:
Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009). Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.
Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9 (3), 105-119. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038.x
Simmons, B. (2011). Autonomy Enables the Helpful to Perform. In Positive Organizational Behavior, Aug. 8,
2011. Retrieved from
Stockdale, S. L. & Brockett, R. G.. (2010). A Measure of Self-Direction in Learning Based on the Personal
Responsibility Orientation Model. Adult Education Quarterly, 61 (2), 161-190.
Taylor, B. (1995). Self-Directed Learning: Revisiting an Idea Most Appropriate for Middle School Students.
Paper presented at the Combined Meeting of the Great Lakes and Southeast International Reading
Association, Nashville, TN, Nov 11-15.
TEDtalksDirector (2009, August 25). Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation. Retrieved from
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