Immigration and Urbanization in the late 19th century

 “…Give
me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!“
Bell-work: Read the poem by Lazarus
1. Who was this poem meant to appeal to?
2. Would the nickname “Mother of Exiles” be
appropriate for the Statue of Liberty?
3. Summarize the poem in your own words.
 Before
the Civil War manufacturing
centered in the countryside
 By the end of the 19th century, 90% of all
manufacturing took place in the cities.
 “New immigrants”
 Why did they immigrate?
 The
population of cities grew at double the
rate of the nation’s population as a whole.
 New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, St. Louis,
Boston and Baltimore were the nation’s
largest cities.
 Movement from the South and farms….why?
 What is the difference between immigrants
and migrants?
 Immigrants and their children were the
major source of urban population growth.
 What
is the difference between the first
wave of immigrants before the Civil War
and the “new immigrants?”
-Skilled vs. Unskilled labor
-Settled in countryside vs. Settled in cities
 ChicagoGermans
 New YorkItalians
 BostonIrish (most numerous among the
new immigrants)
 Immigrants
came to the city for
expanding opportunities for
 Jews had the most experience with urban
 Rural European immigrants
 Continued mobility
 We
know that people swelled population
in the cities, but how did they live?
 Urban landscape
 Tenements
 By 1890, New York’s Lower East Side
crammed more than 700 per acre into
back to back buildings.
 Concept!
 What
is an ethnic
 An
community which
retains some
New styles of
commercial and
civil architecture
were established.
 Architects played a
key role in the late
19th century City
 Influenced by
American wealth
 New schools, sport
court houses,
capital buildings,
hospitals, ect.
 Who helped pay
for these?
Central YMCA, Chicago 1891Jenney
disparities can you
already identify in
American cities between
American wealth and the
urban working
 Industrialization
vs. environmentalism :Who
always wins this one?
 Mass transportation
 Sewer systems
 Pollution
 Biggest danger facing
the urban population?
 Contagious diseases
 Public health reform efforts wouldn’t take
place until the turn of the century
 Attempts to transplant communities from Old
 Modification of old attitudes and customs
 Younger generations adapt
 Clash between old and young generations
 Influence on religion
-Predominance of Protestant religions before
-Influx of Catholics and Jews
-Attempts to convert newcomers
 Immigrants
as innovative entrepreneurs
helped to shape popular culture
 German immigrantsTin Pan Ally
 African AmericansRagtime
 ChicagoConey Island
 Close
to 60% of the industrial labor force
was foreign-born.
 Had links to the America
 Hemispheric migration
 Immigrant
communities took the form of
densely packed ghettos.
 NY became the center of both Jewish
immigration and America’s huge ready to
wear clothing industry.
 Piece-rate
 Garment industry was highly seasonal. A
typical workweek averaging 60 hours or
70 during busy season.
 Triangle
Company Fire
 Think
how events like
these might
lead to reform
during the
Era. Where are
we headed?
Create a journal / diary entry for the following
You are a new immigrant to the US in the 1890’s,
reflect on your:
Experiences in your journey to the US
Emotions upon sailing into NY harbor
Experiences in your processing on Ellis Island
Your emotions and experiences upon leaving
processing and going into the city.
Bear in mind the reasons that prompted your
journey and the family / friends you left behind.