LMRVT-KIDS Motor development and learning

advertisement
Important distinction
• Motor learning (little
research) vs.
• Motor control and
development (more
research)
Motor control & development
• Fair amount of work
done in framework of
“dynamical systems”
• Key point: Interaction
of SUBJECT-TASKENVIRONMENT
Example: Non-linear dynamics
•
Example
– Newborn stepping reflex
– Reflex “disappears” within a few
months
– Traditional explanation is that
cortical maturation inhibits
reflexive movement
– However pattern is seen when
child is on the back, with limbs in
different relationship to gravity
– Stepping reflex disappears
because legs gain weight rapidly;
can’t lift in upright posture
– Implication is that development is
not necessarily (all) about brain
control, but is rather about
interactions of tissue and
environmental factors
Relevance for LMRVT 5-10
• “Raspberries;” /m/,
etc.
vocal tract”
• Helps to abduct vocal
folds (good: counteract
hyperfunction)
• Helps to oscillate vocal
folds (good: intensity)
– “Semi-occluded
– Titze, 2010
Motor learning
• Schema theory
(Schmidt, 1975; 1976)
– Recall and recognition
schemata
– Motor program and
parameters
Schema theory predictions
• (1) Importance of
perception in motor
learning
– Perceptual preexposure (tracking
task, Adams &
Creamer, 1962)
– Observational learning
(juggling; sign
language; dance;
surgery; review by
Schmidt & Lee, 2010)
• Learner’s active
responses to
exposures appears
important for the
effects
• Effects mediated by
mirror neurons?
• (e.g. Rizzolatti &
Craighero, 2004)
http://www.6seconds.org/imagesstatic/neuron.jpg
Relevance for LMRVT 5-10
• LMRVT 5-10
consistently pairs
perception and
production in voice
training
Schema theory predictions
• (2) Importance of
attention to
movement outcomes
(not biomechanics)
– Extensive work by
Wulf & colleagues
Relevance to LMRVT 5-10
• Child’s attention is
directed to voice
outcomes (buzzy,
easy voice), not
biomechanics
Schema theory predictions
• (3) Variable practice
should enhance
generalization
– Seen for numerous
tasks from bean bag
throwing to arm
displacement
– Finding may be
heightened for children
compared to adults
• Effects particularly
enhanced under
random practice
conditions
– Review by Schmidt &
Lee, 2010
Relevance for LMRVT 5-10
• Child practices buzzy
voice in numerous
phonetic, physical
and emotional
contexts
Consistent with schema theory
• (4) Infrequent
(terminal) KR
improves learning in
general
• (5) Whole practice
improves learning for
“whole” tasks
Relevance for LMRVT 5-10
• Use of infrequent
terminal KR
• Use of whole practice
(with rare exceptions)
Download
Related flashcards

Russian racewalkers

30 cards

Bats of Oceania

93 cards

Bats of Southeast Asia

17 cards

Create Flashcards