Service-learning

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Building the Case for
Service-Learning
Andrew Furco
University of Minnesota
April 16, 2010
GROWTH OF COMMUNITY SERVICE AND
SERVICE-LEARNING IN THE UNITED STATES
(1997-2008)
1997
1999
2004
2008
42%
64%
70%
68%
71%
83%
89%
81%
45%
70%
78%
89%
23%
32%
28%
24%
28%
38%
31%
25%
22%
40%
43%
51%
Community Service
All Primary & Secondary Schools
Secondary Schools
Colleges and Universities
Service-learning
All Primary & Secondary Schools
Secondary Schools
Colleges and Universities
Campus Compact. (1998). Service matters: Engaging higher education in the renewal of America's communities and American democracy. Providence, RI: Campus Compact.
Campus Compact, (2001). Campus service participation survey 2000-2001. Providence, RI: Campus Compact.
Campus Compact (2005). Campus service participation survey 2005-2005. Providence, RI: Campus Compact.
Gray, M.J., Ondaatje, E.H., Fricker, R., Geschwind, S., Goldman, C.A., Kaganoff, T., Robyn, A., Sundt, M., Vogelgesang, L., & Klein, S.P. (1998). Coupling service and learning in higher education: The final report of the
evaluation of the Learn and Serve America, higher education program. Santa Monica: The RAND Corporation.
National Center on Educational Statistics. (1997). Student participation in community service activity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
National Youth Leadership Council (2005). Growing to Greatness. Minneapolis, MN: National Youth Leadership Council.
Skinner, R. and Chapman, C. (1999). Service-learning and community service in K-12 public schools. National Center for Education Statistics. NCES 1999-043, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Learn and Serve America, 2008
Building the Case
Fact #1:
Service-learning incorporates
educational elements that help prepare
students for success in the
contemporary global job market.
Successful Global Workforce
Success in the global workforce will be marked by one’s:
•
•
•
•
•
•
ability to make connections across the disciplines;
ability to apply knowledge to address complex situations;
people skills that allow him/her to work effectively in
diverse group settings;
capacity for higher order thinking in ways that enhance
problem solving and analysis;
knowledge about and facility with the global society (e.g.
conversing in different languages, having intercultural
competencies, etc.); and
facility in organizing and utilizing increasing sources of
knowledge and information effectively.
(New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce, 2006)
Building the Case
Fact #2:
Service-learning is composed of the
elements that define quality teaching
and successful learning.
Instruction that Promotes Successful Learning

In terms of classroom learning, students learn best when the
curriculum:

emphasizes learning over teaching

engages students as active participants in the learning
process

is student-centered rather than teacher-centered;

promotes the development of students’ higher order
thinking skills;

focuses on making connections among the disciplines;

connects new knowledge to what student know by having
students construct meaning;

is meaningful and/or of interest to students;

is brain-based;

is socially constructed; and

is practiced and used
Sources: Slavkin (2004); Marzano, Pikering, and Pollock (2001);
Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (1999); Oakes and Lipton (1999).
Essence of
Effective Teaching & Learning
Expands
Boundaries
Personalized
Constructivist
Authentic
Empowering
Collaborative
Active
Programmatic Approaches
Service-learning is part of a suite of experiential
instructional strategies that promote
successful learning
Instructional Strategies:
• problem-based
• project-based
• service-based
• work-based
• adventure-based
• game-based
Essence of
Effective Teaching & Learning
Expands
Boundaries
Personalized
Constructivist
Authentic
Empowering
Collaborative
Active
Building the Case
Fact #3:
Service-learning promotes the civic
involvement of young people.
Knowledge of National & Global Issues
of Importance
What percentage of young Americans (ages
18-24) can accurately identify the
following places on a map?
Iraq
33%
Afghanistan
12%
New York State
50%
Wh\
Building the Case
Fact #4:
Service-learning creates conditions and
opportunities that support students’
academic achievement and educational
success.
Student Outcomes
DOMAIN
OUTCOMES
CAREER
Increased retention; content
knowledge and skills; higher order
thinking
Civic responsibility; commitment to
service
Career awareness and skills
ETHICAL/MORAL
Values development
PERSONAL &
SOCIAL
Self-esteem, empowerment,
motivation, engagement (academic,
civic, social); prosocial behaviors
ACADEMIC
CIVIC
Impacts of Service-Learning
Mediating Factors
ServiceLearning
Self-Esteem
Empowerment
Prosocial behaviors
Motivation
Engagement
High Quality Components
Academic
Success
Preferences
TYPE
EXAMPLE
Charity
Serve food to the homeless on Saturdays
Empowerment
Service
Educate the homeless about social services available to them
Public Work
Facilitate the opening of a homeless shelter
Participatory
Democracy
Work to secure legislation and citizen support that will secure
rights for persons.
Social Action
Students organize a camp out on campus to raise awareness
about homeless
Social Change
Work to reduce the number of homeless persons; train
homeless persons for jobs
Social Justice
Secure legal assistance for a homeless person who was denied
health services
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