Chapter 4

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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Sociology: A Down-to-Earth
Approach 7/e
James M. Henslin
Chapter Four: Social Structure and
Social Interaction
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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
1
Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Levels of Sociological Analysis

Macrosociology


Large-Scale Features of Social Life
Microsociology

Focus on Social Interaction
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
The Macrosociological Perspective

Sociological Significance of Social Structure

Guides Our Behavior

Behavior Decided by Location in Social Structure
 Culture
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
3
Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
The Macrosociological Perspective

Social Class Divides People by…

Income

Education

Occupation

Status Symbols

Master Statuses
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
The Macrosociological Perspective

Social Status

Ascribed

Achieved

Status Symbols

Master Statuses
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
The Macrosociological Perspective

Roles

Groups
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Social Institutions

Sociological Significance of
Social Institutions

Ten Social Institutions in
Industrialized Societies
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Ten Social Institutions in
Industrialized Societies

Family

Religion

Education

Economics

Medicine
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Ten Social Institutions in
Industrialized Societies

Politics

Law

Science

Military

Mass Media
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Social Institutions

Mass Media as Social Institution

Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Functionalist Perspective

Replacing Members

Socializing New Members

Producing and Distributing Goods
and Services

Preserving Order

Providing a Sense of Purpose
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Conflict Perspective

Powerful Groups Control Institutions

Small Groups Garner Lion’s Share of Wealth

Social Institutions Affect Gender Relations

Main Purpose is to Preserve Social Order
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Changes in Social Order


What Holds Society Together?

Mechanical and Organic Solidarity

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
How Relevant Today?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
13
Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Microsociological Perspective:
Social Interaction in Everyday Life
 Stereotypes

Assumptions About What People
Are Like

Classify Others By Visible
Characteristics

Ideas About Characteristics Guide
Our Behavior
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Microsociological Perspective:
Social Interaction in Everyday Life


Personal Space

Intimate Distance

Personal Distance

Social Distance

Public Distance
Eye Contact
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Dramaturgy:
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life

Erving Goffman

Dramaturgy—The Stage

Impression Management

Role Performance

Role Strain Between and Within Roles
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Ethnomethodology:
Uncovering Background Assumptions

The Study of How People Do Things

Harold Garfinkle’s Experiments
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Social Construction of Reality

Definition of the Situation—
Thomas Theorem

Objective Reality vs. Subjective
Interpretation

Gynecological Examinations
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Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Interaction
Need for Macrosociology and
Microsociology

Understanding Incomplete Without Both

Consider the Example of Groups Studied by
William Chambliss
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
19
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