Donna Hurford Presentation

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Why might ITE courses pursue student
teachers’ dual engagement, as adult
learners and student teachers, with
Assessment for Learning?
2nd TEAN Conference
Manchester 2011
Donna Hurford
University of Cumbria
Presentation Outline
 Framing and reframing an AfL question
 Initial Context: theory and practice
 Re-interpreting student learners and AfL
 Alternative perspectives
 Interpreting data or cautious intimations
 Answering or reframing the question
 What next?
Framing the question
…if teachers and student teachers struggle with their own
ability to engage independently in learning, their
effectiveness in enabling pupils to become independent
learners may be compromised. This inability to engage
with independent learning may in turn have implications
for all phases of education.
Read and Hurford, 2008, p. 49
If they are to become confident and informed practitioners
of AfL in their own learning and as teachers they need to
experience and recognise the value of AfL for all learners.
Slater et al., 2009, p.133
Framing and reframing the question
What effect does student
teachers’ engagement
with Assessment for
Learning as adult learners
have on their practice as
student teachers?
Why might ITE
courses pursue
student teachers’
dual engagement, as
adult learners and
student teachers,
with Assessment for
Learning?
Context: theory and practice
Black
&Wiliam,
2003;
Assessment
Reform
Group, 2002
Philosophy
AfL in
schools
Ward,
2008;
DCSF,
2008;
Alexander,
2009
Reality
AfL
observed
on
placement
Linking
learning
Various
Outcome (s)
AfL for
adults
Model and
embed AfL
in ITE
course
Sadler,
1998;
Rust et al,
2003;
Boud,
1988
Teacher
pedagogy
Loughran,
2006
Slater et al
2009;
Read and
Hurford,
2008
AfL opportunities for adult learners:
•Course expectation: autonomous or
independent learners and deep learning
(Boud, 1988; Entwistle, 1996)
•Generate assessment criteria (Assessment
Reform Group, 2002)
•Engage with formative potential of generic
feedback (Black and Wiliam, 2003)
•Peer dialogue on formative assessment
(Black and Wiliam, 2003)
•Interpret tutor feedback (Rust et al. 2003)
•Engage with exemplars of quality (Sadler,
2007; 2009)
Linking learning
Black
&Wiliam,
2003;
Assessment
Reform
Group, 2002
Philosophy
AfL in
schools
Ward,
2008;
DCSF,
2008;
Alexander,
2009
Reality
AfL
observed
on
placement
Linking
learning
Various
Outcome (s)
AfL for
adults
Model and
embed AfL
in ITE
course
Sadler,
1998;
Rust et al,
2003;
Boud,
1988
Teacher
pedagogy
Loughran,
2006
Slater et al
2009;
Read and
Hurford,
2009
Linking learning: student learners and AfL
Higher
Education
Initial Teacher Education
Primary School
Re-interpreting student learners and AfL
I did a Business Studies degree,
we tended to do more group
projects than individual
assignments. I’m anxious about
having to write essays, it’s been
five years since I wrote one.
I don’t know what all these terms
mean. Is Assessment for Learning
another government initiative? I’m
relying on the course to tell me what
I need to know...
I’m relieved to get a place on this course; it’s the only one that fits in with my work
and family commitments.
I prefer to study independently, I’m
good at managing my time...
I have some classroom
experience; I volunteered at
I’m keen to get started now, I’ve
my child’s school for a day a
wanted to be a teacher since I was at
week for two terms; I know
school but it’s only now I have the
what sort of teacher I want to
opportunity...
be...
Alternative perspectives
‘data suggests that practice
of independence is encouraged
by an absence of information rather than an active facilitation of
helpful practices’
Tobell et al, 2010, p.274
Tobell et al. 2010 draw on Wenger’s (1998 cited in Tobell et al. 2010,
p.266) terminology and refer to these new-to-post-graduate-study
students as ‘peripheral
participants’
Alternative perspectives
‘I wanted to understand why it was that some students did
not engage as expected…’
Hockings, 2009, p.88
‘With more information about students’ epistemological,
socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, a more holistic
picture of the factors influencing academic engagement and
participation would emerge. This, I conjecture, would be more
useful than any single perspective analysis for the purposes of
developing pedagogies designed to engage all students.’
Hockings, 2009, p. 95
Alternative perspectives
‘Phenomenography investigates the qualitatively
different ways in which people experience or think
about various phenomena.’
Sherman , 1988, p.144
‘when investigating people’s understanding of various
phenomena , concepts and principles, we repeatedly
found that each phenomenon, concept or principle can
be understood in a limited number of qualitatively
different ways.’
Sherman , 1988, p.143
How do you think these
approaches, have, if at all,
affected your engagement as an
adult learner?
Do you think there is a
link between
understanding and
practising AfL and IL as
an adult learner and as a
teacher?
Yes – No – Maybe- Don’t
Know
Provide an explanation for your
answer
1. Gave me the opportunity to think
about my learning and where I felt the
gaps were or if I was confident in
areas
Maybe
Because there would appear to be a link
between the reflective elements and
identifying learning needs
2. Student generated success criteria
has made the criteria clearer and
easier to understand
Yes
understanding practically as a learner
has helped my teaching. Provided a
context and I can see that works from
my own learning
3. I know that I have sole
responsibility for my own learning
and am aware of resources I need to
access in order to progress
Don’t Know
No response
4. I used every opportunity to learn
and gain more knowledge and insight
Don’t Know
I'm not sure what you mean. I
prioritised my learning needs, identified
weak spots and found ways of plugging
those gaps and moving on in my
learning using independent study
5. Helped to take ownership of the
assignments for Ed studies and feel
more involved with the subject
No Response
I think there is a link, but it is not an
easy concept and I think more should be
done to help with applying the concept
in our teaching practice
Interpreting Data
‘It is a goal of phenomenography to discover the structural framework within
which various categories of understanding exist. ‘
Sherman, 1988, p.145
l
4
l
5
l
(l)
l
l
l
l
Yes;
Maybe; No;
Don’t Know
3
l
Experiential/
Contextual
l
l
Responsibility
for learning
l
l
Self aware
2
Affective
l
Pragmatic
Metacognitive
1
l
Maybe
l
Yes
l
Don’t
Know
l
Don’t
Know
l
No
Response
Interpreting Data or cautious intimations...
Tentative response patterns
1. meta-cognitive; self aware; experiential/contextual
2. pragmatic; self aware; responsible for learning
3. Yes, there is a link; refer to AfL in classroom
practice
Answering or reframing the question
Why might ITE
courses pursue
student teachers’
dual engagement, as
adult learners and
student teachers,
with Assessment for
Learning?
What might ITE
courses consider
when pursuing
student teachers’
dual engagement, as
adult learners and
student teachers,
with Assessment for
Learning?
Linking learning: student learners and AfL
Higher
Education
Initial Teacher Education
Primary School
What next?
Listen to student
teacher narratives
about AfL; their own
learning and their
application of AfL in
the classroom
Be cautious about
‘seeing’ emerging
patterns – be open to
dissonance
Apply
phenomenographical
approach and incorporate
other approaches where it
seems appropriate
Engage students in
dialogue about
scaffolding metalearning
References
Alexander, R. (2009 (ed.) Children, their world, their education. Final Report and Recommendations of the Cambridge Primary
Review. Oxon: Routledge.
Assessment Reform Group (2002) Assessment for Learning: 10 Principles. London: Assessment Reform Group.
Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C. Marshall, B. & Wiliam, D. (2003) Assessment for learning: putting it into practice. Maidenhead: Open
University Press.
Boud, D. (1988) ‘Moving towards Autonomy’ in Boud, D. (ed.) (2nd ed) Developing Student Autonomy in Learning. London: Kogan
Page. pp 17-39.
Department for Children, Schools and Families (2008) The Assessment for Learning Strategy. Nottingham: DCSF Publications.
Entwistle, N. (1996) Recent research on student learning and the learning environment. In Tait, J. and Knight, P. The Management of
Independent Learning. London: SEDA.
Hockings, Christine (2009) 'Reaching the students that student-centred learning cannot reach', British Educational Research Journal,
35 (1), pp.83-98.
Loughran, J. (2006) Developing a Pedagogy of Teacher Education. Oxon: Routledge.
Read, A. and Hurford, D. (2008) ‘Opportunities for personalised learning: enabling or overwhelming?’ Practitioner Research in Higher
Education, 2 (1). pp. 43-50.
Rust, C., Price, M. & O’Donovan, B. (2003) ‘Improving Students’ Learning by Developing their Understanding of Assessment Criteria
and Processes’ .Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 28 (2) pp.147-164
Sadler, D. R. (1998) ‘ Formative Assessment: Revisiting the territory.’ Assessment in Education 5 (1) 77Sherman, R. R. and Rodman, W.B. (ed) (1988) Qualitative research in education; focus and methods. London: Falmer Press
Slater, A., Shaw, S., Read, A. and Hurford, D. (2009) ‘Tell me what to do?’. In: Jackson, Alison, (ed.) Innovations and Development in
Initial Teacher Education : A selection of conference papers presented at The 4th ESCalate ITE conference, University of Cumbria,
Carlisle campus 16th May 2008. ESCalate, pp. 125-134.
Tobell, J., O’Donnell, V., Zammit, M. (2010) ‘Exploring transition to postgraduate study: shifting identities in interaction with
communities, practice and participation.’ British Educational Research Journal 36 (2), pp.261-278
Ward, H. (2008) ‘Assessment for Learning has fallen prey to gimmicks, says critic’, Times Educational Supplement, 17 October
[Online]. Available at: http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6003863 (Accessed 14 May 2011).
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