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Nonverbal Communication
Functions
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Impression management
Influence perception
 Appearance matters
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Sign of membership
Visibility of logos
 Team uniform
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Functions
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cont’d
Regulate communication
Eye contact
 Finger waving
 Touch
 Paraverbal language
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Functions
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cont’d
Provide feedback
Facial expressions
 Roll eyes
 Fidgeting
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Emphasize meaning
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“The look”
Functions
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Substitute for words
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cont’d
Emblems
Thumbs up
Express social relationships
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Power
Compliance
Affect management
Social intimacy
Body Language
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Proximity
Use of space
 Seating dynamics
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Touch
Interjection
 Ask before touching
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Body Language
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Eye Contact
Cultural differences influence use,
perception of eye contact
 Indicates listening
 Can make others feel valued
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Body Language
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Facial Expressions
Six universal expressions
 Varied interpretations
 Indicate feelings, level of
understanding
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Body Language
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Gestures
Used to gain and maintain
attention
 Are culturally based
 Facilitate the message
being sent
 Influence group affect
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Body Language
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Posture
Demonstrates confidence
 Expresses feelings
 Influences impressions
 Shows physical well-being
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Body Language
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Olfactics
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Culturally-based
Can create intimacy
Beware of sensitivities
Physical Appearance
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Demonstrates fitness
Shows confidence, competence
Impacts stereotypes
Body Language
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Chronemics
Use of time
 Culturally-based
 Is an expression of power
 Is an expression of ‘other
orientation’
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Paraverbal Language
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Pitch
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Implies competence, confidence
Suggests authority, friendliness
Adjust for audience and task goals
Be alert to concerns related to
hearing acuity
Use consciously
Paraverbal Language
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Rate
Speed of speech
 We listen faster than we
can talk
 Be aware of audience
 Influences stereotypes
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Paraverbal Language
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Volume
Loudness
 Projection vs. yelling
 Check with participants
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Inflection
Indicates question or assertion
 Be aware of “uptalk”
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Paraverbal Language
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Accents
Different pronunciation
sounds
 Influences stereotypes
 Be alert to the impact on
the audience
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Paraverbal Language
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Silences and pauses
Gives time for people to think
 Helps to make a point
 Be aware of overuse
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Paraverbal Language
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Miscellaneous sounds
“Umm,” “ahh,” “hmm,” “tsk”,
“pshaw”
 Used to hold speaking turn
 Speaker may sound uncertain
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Symbolic Language
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Pictorial symbols to convey
messages
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Logos
Road signs
Emblems
Written Language
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In the profession
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Memos, letters
Reports
Evaluations
Marketing materials
Electronic
communications
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Effective writing
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Well-focused
Readable
Precise
Accurate
Active voice
Gender-neutral
Electronic Communication
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E-mail
Advantages
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Worldwide in an instant
Broadcast to many at one time
Written record
Disadvantages
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Two-dimensional
Decoding issues
No privacy
Electronic Communication
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Listserv
Transmits to groups of people
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Worldwide access
Great for mass feedback
Not everyone has access
Private vs. public lists
Electronic Communication
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Cautions
Only use when it is best suited
 Postings may be seen by
unintended audiences
 Beware of ‘Reply to All’
Official record
No privacy expectations
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