Higher Education across Borders: Transcultural interaction and Linguistic Diversity April 1-4, 2012 Comwell Conference Hotel, Roskilde, Denmark Hybridity as the hallmark of transcultural interaction: implications for language policy Kanavillil Rajagopalan State University at Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil firstname.lastname@example.org Nation, Nationality, nation-state etc. as essentially European constructs (cf. Sue Wright, Chris Hutton, Joseph Errington) Linguistics, sociology, and anthropology have all played important roles in nationalist and colonialist agendas, which involved major work on the naturalization, uniformization, and objectification of social groups (and hence their ‘cultures,’ their boundaries, and their ‘languages’ -- Monica Heller Scholars have widely recognized essentialist discourse as a potentially pernicious means of conceptualizing categories of ‘race’ and ethnicity. What has not been so rigorously explored is the way in which socially differentiated languages may themselves be essentialized to similar ends. -- Janet McIntosh LANGUAGE PLANNING Einar Haugen (1904 -1994) Status planning -- Corpus planning Acquisition planning “One nation, one people, one language” The role of growing multilingualism HYBRIDITY Newness: ‘mélange, hotch-potch, a bit of this and a bit of that’ – Salman Rushdie Hybrid languages: Spanglish, Franglais, Portunhol, Hinglish Resistance to hybrid languages Hybridity of languages/miscegenation of peoples “Es gibt keine Mischprache” -- Max Müller 19th century Zeitgeist References: • • • • • • • • Errington, Joseph (2008). Linguistics in a Colonial World: A Story of Language, Meaning and Power., MA, USA. : Blackwell Publishing. Heller, Monica (2008). ‘Language and the nation-state: Challenges to sociolinguistic theory and practice.’ Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(4): 504– 524 Hutton, Christopher. (1999). Linguistics and the Third Reich. Mother-tongue Fascism, Race and the Science of Language. London and New York: Routledge. McIntosh, Janet (2005). ‘Language essentialism and social hierarchies among Giriama and Swahili’. Journal of Pragmatics 37: 1919–1944 Rajagopalan, Kanavillil. (2012). ‘Colonial hangover and the new ‘hybrid’ Englishes.’ In Agnihotri, R. K. and Singh, R. (eds.). Indian English: Towards a New Paradigm. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Ltd. 206 – 214. Rushdie, Salman (1990). In Good Faith. London: Penguin. Wright, Sue. (2004). Language Policy and Language Planning. From Nationalism to Globalisation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.