California Juvenile

CALIFORNIA
JUVENILE JUSTICE POLICY
AND FUNDING UPDATE
PACIFIC JUVENILE DEFENDER CENTER
Roundtable & Training Session
September 22, 2012 – San Francisco, CA
Presented by: David Steinhart
1
COVERAGE
 Juvenile crime and incarceration trends



Update on juvenile arrests (statewide)
Facility confinement trends
Juveniles tried & sentenced as adults
 Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) update





Governor’s full shutdown proposal– counties squash it in 2012
DJJ population in 2012
DJJ law & budget changes adopted in 2012- and key cases
Future prospects for DJJ downsizing
Juvenile Justice Realignment– county level issues


Funding for realignment– and the State Auditor’s Report
Persistent concerns about local sentences & levels of care
 The Board of State and Community Corrections

Emerging juvenile justice policy and funding role
 Other statewide issues of interest



November tax initiative– impact on public safety grants
Pending legislative measures: school discipline, LWOP
Leadership for change in California
2
California juvenile arrest
and incarceration trends
3
California Arrests of Juveniles 2010
Felony other
38,820
Felony violent
13,200
Status Offense
27,594
Misdemeanor
106,253
2010
TOTAL JUVENILE
ARRESTS
185,867
(down from
210,486 in 2001)
Source: California Department of Justice
Commonweal
4
California Juvenile Felony Arrests and
Juvenile Felony Arrest Rate Per 100,000
1995-2010
100,000
3000
87916
80,000
85640
82748
2500
76104
68503
60,000
651896619165163
6388963993
61539608785987161161
2000
58555
52020
1500
40,000
1000
20,000
500
0
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
20
01
20
02
20
03
20
04
20
05
20
06
20
07
20
08
20
09
20
10
0
Total Juv. Felony Arrests (left scale)
Source: California Department of Justice
Fel. Arrest Rate Per 100,000 (right scale)
Commonweal
California Arrests for VIOLENT crimes
Juvenile and Adult Arrest Rate Per 100,000
1995-2010
700
600
500
400
300
200
Juvenile
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1997
1996
1995
100
Adult
Source: California Department of Justice
Commonweal
6
California Transfers of Juveniles
to Adult Criminal Court 2004 - 2010
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
1123
929
654
1201
866
724
1115
769
970
716
661
535
343
283
252
318
399
275
335
346
254
0
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Juvenile court remand to adult court
Prosecutor direct file in adult court
Total transferred to adult court
Source: California Department of Justice
Commonweal
7
Adult Court Dispositions of Juveniles – 2010
(N = 715 dispositions)
Convicted
607 (85%)
Dismissed,
Acquitted or
Rt’d to Juv. Ct.
108 (15%)
Source: California Department of Justice.
State Prison
379 (62%)
DJJ Commitment
5 (<1%)
Probation
19 (3%)
Probation with Jail
185 (31%)
Jail
8 (1 %)
Fine / Other
11 (2%)
Commonweal
California Juvenile Justice Facilities
Average Daily Populations
By placement type (4th quarter 2009 and 2011)
ADP 2009 = 14,300
ADP 2011= 10,800
2009
2011
State DJJ
1,400
Private Placements
3,000 (est)
Private Placements
2,000 (est)
State DJJ
1,000
Co. Probation
Camps 3,700
Co. Juvenile Halls
6,200
Co. Probation
Camps 2,900
Co. Juvenile Halls
4,900
Sources: CA Corrections Standards Authority, CA Division of Juvenile Justice,
CA Department of Social Services (Berkeley Center for Social Services Research), latest
available data.
Commonweal
9
Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ)
Update and trends
10
California Division of Juvenile Facilities
Institutional Population
1996 – 2011 (as of December 31 each year)
10,000
9572
9,000
8599
8083
7666
7305
8,000
7,000
6497
6,000
5557
5,000
4696
4,000
3678
2999
2647
2293
17341602
12751031
3,000
2,000
1,000
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
0
SB 81
Source: Ca. Dept. of Corrections & Rehabilitation
Commonweal
11
Downsizing the CA Div. of Juvenile Justice
Major Milestones 1996 -2012

1996: Sliding scale fees imposed for level V-VII
commitments– CYA population drops swiftly

2000: Proposition 21 opens new doors to adult court

2004: Consent Decree in Farrell case vs. CYA– generates
program costs that are catalysts for SB 81

2007: SB 81 bans future commitments of non-707 youth

2010: DJJ parole is realigned to county probation

2012: Governor proposes to close DJJ, proposal dies but
time adds are banned, age of jurisdiction is lowerred
DJJ POP
10,000
1,000
Commonweal
12
CYA-DJF Institution
Closures Since 2000
CLOSED
FACLITIES
Rated
Capacity
Year
Closed
STILL
OPEN
Rated
Capacity
Fred Nelles
Karl Holton
NCRC
DW Nelson
650
388
326
433
2003
2004
2004
2007
Chaderjian
OH Close
600
379
Paso Robles
Stark
690
1200
2008
2009
Ventura- M
Ventura- F
Total
381
295
1,655
Preston
720
2011
SCRC
350
2012
Total
4,757
--
Commonweal
13
DJJ Institutional Population June 30, 2012
by Court and Type of Commitment
N= 922 inmates
Adult Court E & M Cases (157)
Juvenile Court Parole Violators (56)
Juvenile Court 1st Commitments (709)
Juv Court Commitment
Adult Court E & M Cases
Juv Court Parole Violator
Source: CA Division of Juvenile Facilities, Research Div.
Commonweal
14
Governor Proposes Full closure of DJJ in 2012
Counties rebel against the plan,
Advocates are divided on shutdown terms




Governor’s plan: close DJJ, pay counties $200 ml. more
County response: “forget about it”
 Cite public safety concerns, lack of treatment resources
 Shutdown proposal is pulled back by Governor- dies
Advocates split on merits
 Some press for complete shutdown. Others say
shutdown premature without safeguards to stop flow of
youth to state prison
Prospects for future shutdown of what’s left of DJJ are dim
DJJ Legislative Outcome - 2012
In lieu of closure, modest downsizing controls were
adopted in budget trailer bills in 2012:
 DJJ time adds to sentence are eliminated completely
 Top DJJ age of jurisdiction drops from 25 to 23
 The 2011 county commitment fee is reduced from
$125,000 to $24,000 per ward per year
 State parole will now end 18 months earlier (Jan. 2013)
Commonweal
Cases affecting DJJ commitments in 2012

In re C.H. Ca Supreme Court, 53 Cal.4th 94 (Dec. 2011)



Opinion interprets SB 81 language as failing to authorize commitments of
non WIC 707(b) sex offenders to DJJ
Legislature quickly responds by rewriting the statute to clarify the court’s
authority to commit a non-707 sex offender to DJJ (AB 324, effective
For still-confined sex offenders sent to DJJ between 2007-2012 (N=65),
whose commitments were invalid under In re C.H., AB 324 permits DJJ to
keep them in DJJ to age 21 under contract with the committing county. (
 In re Greg F. (CA Supreme Court, August 2012, docket S191868)



Upholds dismissal of lesser prior using WIC 782 to validate DJJ
commitment on a prior WIC 707(b) offense (reversing the DCA on this).
Holds that Legislature never intended WIC 733 commitment language
limit to trump Juvenile Court discretion to dismiss under WIC 782
Result: Ward with county disposition on a WIC 707/sex case can be
leapfrogged into DJJ by dismissing an intervening, non-qualifying offense.
Juvenile Justice Realignment-County level issues
Funding the CA Juvenile Justice System-Annual costs and fund sources (2012)
State Div. of Juvenile Justice (DJJ)
Total budget $ 180 million
County Probation Juv. Justice facilities
and programs- total $1.7 billion
$15 million est.
Federal Funds
$390 million
CA State Grants and Funds
$ 180 million
State General Fund
$1.25 billion est.
County General Funds
Sources: CA State Dept. of Finance; CDCR (DJJ and the Corrections Standards Authority);
CA State Juv. Justice Commission (Master Plan, 2009)
Commonweal
19
State support for local juvenile justice
operations under 2011-12 realignment
Fund or Program
FY 11/12
FY 12/13
2007 Juv. Justice
Realignment (SB 81)
$93 million
$ 93 million
2010 Div. Juv. Justice
Parole Realignment
$ 10 million
$10 million
Juv. Justice Crime Prev. Act
(JJCPA)
$ 107 million
$ 107 million
Juvenile Probation
Camp Funds- Camps
$29 million
$29 million
Juvenile Probation Camp
Funds- Programs
$ 152 million
$ 152 million
Total
$ 391 million
$ 391 million
Sources: CA Dept of Finance, Cal. State Association of Counties
Commonweal
20
DJJ Realignment implementation-County issues and challenges


State Auditor’s Report (Sep. 2012) slams CSA and Legislature
on SB 81 goals and performance measures
Varied county responses to the realigned DJJ caseload:
 Special custody programs– e.g. Los Angeles camp
 Long term juvenile hall commitments– a growing concern
 Still unresolved: mental health, other local treatment needs

State oversight of juvenile justice realignment—

BSCC could assert a stronger leadership and coordination role, but it is
too early to tell
Commonweal
County Allocations of State JJ Funds
10 largest for FY 09/10 (in $ millions)
COMBINED JJCPA, JPCF and YOBG ALLOCATIONS
L.A.
$108.0
Orange
$49.4
S. Diego
$23.8
S. B'dino
$18.4
Riverside
$16.3
S.Clara
$16.3
Alameda
$12.8
Sac'mento
$11.0
Kern
$9.0
Co.Costa
$8.1
All others
$64.7
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
$ Millions FY 09-10
Commonweal
22
Board of State
Community
Csaandand
bscc Corrections
Juvenile Justice Mission & Mandates
 BSCC replaced Corrections Standards Authority effective July 1, 2012
 Mandates include




Oversee adult and juvenile corrections realignment– major focus on adult
From CSA: juvenile justice grants (program, construction), facility standards, data
An expanded mission statement- leadership on community corrections
BSCC structure



Independence from CDCR
A smaller, reconstituted Board (12 members)
Mandated stakeholder involvement in decision making
 BSCC Juvenile Justice role

Remains to be seen how BSCC will take lead on juvenile justice policy and
programs, or how it will modify CSA style and approach on key issues
Commonweal
23
Other statewide issues of interest

November ballot tax measures—


Bills pending with the Governor



Fallout if Governor’s tax initiative (Prop 30) fails
SB 9 (Yee, Review of Juvenile LWOP sentences)
School discipline & expulsion reform bills
Juvenile Justice policy issues on tap for 2013
& who are the lead policymakers in Sacramento?
24
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