# Present State and Desired State

```Present State
and
Desired State
Present State and Desired State
Matching
An alternative method in which a problem can be properly
formulated is to determine the present state (PS) and the
desired state (DS). Present state is also referred to as
problem state and desired state may also be referred to as
solution state. After the PS and DS are specified, the
engineer may then modify either the PS and DS, or both, until
the two relate to each other.
Present State and Desired State
Example:
PS: I need to study physics.
DS: I want to earn an A in engineering design.
In this example there is no correlation between the PS and DS.
However, after reflection and reformulation these phrases
may be rephrased as:
Present State and Desired State
Rephrased statement:
PS: I need to study physics because I have an exam next
week.
DS: I want to earn an A in engineering design.
Even though the two statements were rephrased, there still
remains no connection between the two.
Present State and Desired State
Rephrased statements:
PS: I need to study physics because I have an exam
next week, but the only time that I can devote to physics
is already scheduled for my term project in engineering
design.
DS: I want to earn acceptable grades in both
engineering design and physics.
Now, we are starting to see the relation between both the PS
and DS, but further refinement is still needed.
Present State and Desired State
Rephrased statement:
PS: I am not sufficiently prepared for my upcoming
physics exam and I also need to work on my term
project in engineering design.
DS: I want to earn acceptable grades on both my
engineering design term project and my physics
exam.
Finally, a direct and obvious correlation between the PS and
the DS exists.
Present State and Desired State
After finding the direct relation between the
PS and DS and that they match in terms of
specificity (project, exam) and explicit
may then look for possible solution paths
leading from both the PS and DS.
Present State and Desired State
Some such solutions may include:
 I must become more efficient
 I will speak with my professors, and seek tutoring
help
 I will decrease the number of hours each week
spent watching television and devote this time to