Exploring the Learning Success Factors of Resilient Students: The Engagement Perspective Dian-Fu Chang Tamkang University Hsiao-Chi Chang UC Davis, Sung-Po Lin Definition of Resilient Students They espouse psychological features of resilience. They are students who are willing to conquer the barriers during their academic journey and eventually reward by their excellent academic achievement. Resilient student in this study are students with an economically disadvantaged family background. Purpose of the Study Investigate the factors that underlying the success of resilient students. Previous Studies focus on personality rather than engagement of resilient students. This study employs engagement theory to explore the factors that promote the success of resilient students. Literature Review Context of the Study Global: PISA Report did not further discuss the backgrounds, motivation, characteristics and learning related factors of resilient of students. Taiwan: Students are deeply influenced by Confucianism and its belief system. Characteristics of Resilient Students Psychological: Strong will Self-efficacy Positive Attitudes or Positive thinking Behaviors go beyond the confinement Contextual: Strong Family support Teachers providing opportunity Theoretical Framework Engagement is positively correlated to academic achievement Engagement versus Personality Engagement theory in this study: Behavioral engagement Cognitive engagement Emotional engagement Data Collection Sampling population: 1,323 senior high school students Demographic backgrounds of Students: Age ranged from 15 to18 years old 34 Senior High Schools Instrument Academic performance is the score of General Scholastic Ability Test (GSAT): Academic proficiency of • • • • • Chinese Language Art English Mathematics Social Study Science 18 items regarding student engagement. Method Factor Analysis ANOVA Multiple Regression Distribution of resilient students 91 resilient students (6.9%), 131 nonresilient students (9.9%), and 1,101 average students (83.2%) Backgrounds of Resilient students: Low socio-economic backgrounds High Academic Performance Engagement Levels of Students 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 Non-resilient Resilient Cognitive Engagement Average Non-resilient Resilient Emotional Engagement Average Non-resilient Resilient Direct-behavioral Engagement Average Non-resilient Resilient Average Indirectbehavioral Engagement Regression Models Model R2 .130 Z𝑌 = −0.077 × 𝑍𝑋1 + 0.240 × 𝑍𝑋2 + 0.070 × 𝑍𝑋3 + 0.251 × 𝑍𝑋4 .124 Z𝑌 Average = −0.050 × 𝑍𝑋1 + 0.223 × 𝑍𝑋2 + 0.053 Students × 𝑍𝑋3 + 0.260 × 𝑍𝑋4 .203 Z𝑌 Resilient = −0.027 × 𝑍𝑋1 + 0.199 × 𝑍𝑋2 + 0.376 Students × 𝑍𝑋3 + 0.154 × 𝑍𝑋4 .269 Z𝑌 Non-resilient Y:GSAT Score; X1:Indirect-behavioral X2:Direct-behavioral = −0.238 × 𝑍Engagement; + 0.359 × 𝑍𝑋2 − 0.034 Students 𝑋1 Engagement; X3:Emotional Engagement × 𝑍𝑋3Engagement; + 0.267 × 𝑍X4:Cognitive 𝑋4 Group All students Discussion The personality of resilient students is a key factor to their levels of engagement, specifically their enjoyment in learning. Resilient students have better interaction with others, thus able to obtain the assistance from others. Self-regulation of resilient students is crucial to keep their positive attitudes toward learning. Conclusion Stimulating student engagement is more important than providing resources, specifically to economically disadvantaged students. Emotional engagement is the key factor behind the academic success of resilient students. Questions?