pedagogical considerations in teaching and learning

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PEDAGOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
Teopista Z. Villanaba
Special Science Teacher IV (Retired)
Philippine Science High School Southern Mindanao
Campus
 Pedagogy is the holistic science of education. It
may be implemented in practice as a personal, and
holistic approach of socializing and upbringing
children and young people (Ellis Martin)..
 Pedagogy is also occasionally referred to as the
correct use of instructive strategies . The word
comes from the Greek paidagōgeō; in which país or
paidos means "child" and ágō means "lead"; so it
literally means "to lead the child
Ten Core Principles for
Designing Effective
Learning Environments
by JudithV. Boettcher
Core Learning Principle #1:
 Every Structured Learning
Experience Has Four Elements
with the Learner at the Center
Mentor
Learner
Knowledge
Environment
Core Learning Principle #2:
 Every Learning Experience
Includes the Environment in
which the Learner Interacts
Core Learning Principle #3:
 We Shape Our Tools and Our Tools
Shape Us
Core Learning Principle #4:
 Faculty are the Directors of the
Learning Experience
Core Learning Principle #5:
 Learners Bring Their Own
Personalized Knowledge, Skills,
and Attitudes to the Learning
Experience
Core Learning Principle #6:
 Every Learner Has a Zone of
Proximal Development That
Defines the Space That a Learner
is Ready to Develop into Useful
Knowledge
Core Learning Principle #7:
 Concepts are Not Words;
Concepts are Organized and
Intricate Knowledge Clusters
Core Learning Principle #8:
 Learners Do Not Need to Learn
All Course Content; They Need to
Learn the Core Concepts
Core Learning Principle # 9:
 Different Instruction is Required
for Different Learning Outcomes
Core Learning Principle # 10:
 Everything Else Being Equal,
More Time-on-Task Equals More
Learning
BEST PRACTICES IN
TEACHING AND LEARNING
 (Adapted from lectures during National Conference on “ Best
Practices in Teaching and Learning Science and Mathematics”,
February 5-7, 2004, UP NISMED, Diliman, Quezon City)
Motivating Techniques to Make
Teaching and Learning Fun
Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
games
poems
riddles
raps, songs
jingles
pictures
diorama
multimedia
Strategies
•
•
•
•
•
field trip
concept mapping
simulation
role playing
inviting resource
speaker
• jigsaw
• poster making
Strategies
•
•
•
•
comic strip writing
brainstorming
journal writing
debate/panel
discussion
• project
making/research
• story telling
• use of portfolio and
other authentic
assessment
Approaches
• cooperative
learning
• practical work
approach
• process approach
• inquiry approach
• thematic approach
Practical Work Approach
(PWA)
 The Practical Work Approach is minds-on, hearts
–on, hands-on method of teaching and learning.
It proceeds from concrete (experiments,
activities) to abstract (concepts); from familiar to
unfamiliar
 Some strategies used in PWA are: PROBEX,
games, simulations, field study, laboratory,
debate, panel discussion, role play, concept
mapping, journal article writing, interactive multi
media
Investigative or Inquiry Approach
in Teaching/Learning
 Involves Asking questions … this is the
most important work of a scientist
 Designing activities to answer the
questions
 Finding new questions to ask
 Investigation Tips: planning, making
hypotheses, collecting evidence, recording
and presenting data, interpreting data
Thematic Approach to
Teaching
 It is based on the assumption that
knowledge is a function of one’s
personal integration of experiences
and therefore not fall into neatly
separate categories or disciplines so it
is interdisciplinary
Story telling…
once upon a time
 Story telling makes the lesson
interesting and exciting
 Some stories we can tell: biographies,
discoveries, events, etc.
 Stories are more effective when
presented with visual aids sucvh as
pictures, tapes, videos
Teaching/Learning
Through Videos/Drawings
 When presenting videos, it must be
from 3-5 minutes only. The rest of the
period is used in discussing what was
viewed.
Teaching Critical Thinking
 Critical Thinking is an art of
systematically evaluating and
reconstructing thinking to raise it
constantly to a higher level quality
 Value bases of CT are: accuracy and
precision, consistency, intellectual
humility, courage, integrity, fairness,
sound judgment, wisdom, curiosity,
enthusiasm and initiative
How is Critical Thinking Taught?
1. Motivation … get their
attention, let them focus
2. Engage students in hands-on
activities. During the activity,
walk around, keep asking
questions, check participation,
discuss observations
How is Critical Thinking Taught?
3. Be sure the discussion is
focused; when making
conclusions, watch out for outliers
(those whose answers are
different from others)
How is Critical Thinking Taught?
4. Ask challenging questions that are
categorized as analysis, evaluation and
synthesis like:
 Which among the procedural steps need to
be changed? How will you improve this?
 What do you think is happening?
 How do you explain this observation?
 How did Eratosthenes measure the
circumference of the earth?
How is Critical Thinking Taught?
5. Practice asking how, how much, what,
can you show me, what do you think, how
would you explain this observation….
Instead of asking WHY QUESTIONS . The
foregoing questions mostly demand
concrete reasoning strategies. Why
questions are generally difficult to answer
because they generally demand formal
reasoning strategies
Performance in the National Achievement Tests
Subject
2004
2005
2007
2008
Science
36.8%
39.49 %
51.58 %
57.90%
Math
46.2%
50.7 %
60.29%
63.89%
Performance in International Assessment Studies
(e.g., Trends in Math and Science Study-TIMSS)
Science
Grade 4
Grade 7
Grade 8
1995
1999
2003
23rd (25)
41st (42)
36th (38)
42nd (45)
Note: UP NISMED managed the TIMSS: cultural adaptation, test
administration, checking of items, analysis of results, and
writing the report
Reasons given for the poor performance in TIMSS*
Students who took the TIMSS test
 NOT familiar with the format of the test items
 Have NOT taken Biology, Chemistry, and Physics
 NOT exposed to inquiry-based instruction.
 Have NOT developed higher level thinking
 Have NOT retained or mastered concepts and skills due to
‘jumping’ sequence of topics in different grade levels
 NOT exposed to questions that show connections across
science topics or across disciplines
 Have poor communication and comprehension skills; most
constructed-response items were not answered.
 NOT familiar with literacy-based assessment
* Based on interviews with teachers and principals and NISMED
observations during school visits
Approaches to Teaching & Learning
BEC
K to 12
Recipe or confirmatory type of
activities; Science investigations
are not explicit, Not inquiry based
Varied inquiry-based activities;
guided to semi-structured to
open-ended investigations
Real-life applications of concepts
are minimal
More real-life applications of
concepts ; Connections across
science topics are emphasized
Connections across science topics
are NOT emphasized
Mathematics skills needed for
science are NOT provided at
appropriate grades
Mathematics skills needed to
learn science are integrated
ICT integration is NOT explicit.
Varied ICT tools are used;
Appropriate and indigenous
technology are utilized
Classroom Assessment
BEC
K to 12
Mainly paper and pencil tests;
more on selected- response
type; constructed-response type
rare
Varied assessment formats used:
selected- response (SR) and
constructed-response (CR) types;
rubrics provided for CR questions
Use of rubrics not common,
giving rise to inconsistent and
subjective evaluation
Many competencies are not
aligned with assessment; Some
competencies are high level but
assessments are mainly recall
Suggested assessment aligned
with competencies
Focus on summative
assessment rather than
formative assessment (A4L)
Results of formative test are used
to improve instruction;
suggestions on how to do these
are in the TG
Core Science Standard (for the entire K to 12)
The learner demonstrates understanding of basic
science concepts, applies science process skills, and
exhibits scientific attitudes and values to solve
problems critically, innovate beneficial products,
protect the environment and conserve resources for
sustainability, enhance the integrity and wellness of
people, and make informed and unbiased decisions
about social issues that involve science and
technology.
This understanding will lead to learner’s
manifestation of respect for life and the environment,
bearing in mind that Earth is our ONLY HOME.
Curriculum Components
Component 1: Inquiry Skills
 Asking questions about the natural world
(materials, events, phenomena, and experiences)
 Designing and conducting investigations using
appropriate procedure, materials, tools, and
equipment
 Employing different strategies to obtain
information from different sources
 Communicating results of investigations using
appropriate presentation tools
Basic Science
Processes
Observing
Asking
questions
Measuring
Classifying
Inferring
Finding patterns
Predicting
Communicating
Integrated
Skills
Formulating
hypothesis
Fair testing
- Identifying
variables
- Controlling
variables
Collecting and
organizing data
Interpreting data
Making
conclusions
Scientific Inquiry Skills
Higher Order
Thinking Skills
Critical thinking
Creative thinking
Problem solving
Decision making
(Real-life context)
STE Literacy
Skills
Component 2: Content and Connections
Living Things &
Their Environment
Characteristics
Structure and
Function
Processes Science
Interactions Content
(G1-10)
Matter
Diversity of
materials Properties
and Structure
Changes
Interactions
Force, Motion and
Energy
Movement
Effects of Force
Forms of Energy and
Transformation
Earth and Space
Surroundings: Land,
Water, Air,
Weather and Climate
Solar system
Sequence may vary from grade to grade. Ensure horizontal
integration of topics across grading periods.
Component 3: Scientific Attitudes and Values
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Intellectual honesty
Objectivity
Perseverance
Active listening
Assuming responsibility
Taking initiative
Independent learning
Analyzing and evaluating information,
procedures, and claims.
Making decisions based on sound
judgment and logical reasoning.
The Approach:
Spiral Progression
The scope and sequence of the content are developed
carefully from one grade level to the next. Concepts
and skills are revisited at each grade level with
increasing depth.
New concepts are built on pupils’ prior knowledge and
skills to allow gradual mastery from one grade level to
the next.
WHY SPIRAL PROGRESSION?
SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF DEVELOPED OR HIGH
PERFORMING COUNTRIES
• Basic education cycle: min 12 years, max 14 years
(compulsory up to G9, for some G10)
• Inquiry-based and learner-centred
• Spiral progression; emphasis on depth rather than breadth
• Emphasis on connections across topics and disciplines;
developing literacy
 Integrated rather than discipline-based, at least up to
Grade 9
 International tests have integrated questions
* Australia (2 states) Brunei, England, Japan, Singapore, New Zealand,
USA (3 states)
Summary:
The Spiral Progression and
Integrated Science in K to 12
 Avoids the major disjunctions between stages of
schooling; provides the basis for continuity and
consistency; Compartmentalization inhibit transfer of
learning across topics; students who exit school early do
not have the basic functioning skills across requisite
areas of science (University of Melbourne, Curriculum
Comparison Study, 2011)
 Allows learners to learn Science topics and skills
appropriate to their developmental/cognitive stages;
 Shows the interrelatedness of Science topics with each
other and their connections across topics;
 Strengthens retention and mastery of topics and skills;
 Enables DepED to benchmark Filipino students with
their counterparts in other countries.
Science
in the
K to 12
Curriculum
is
 learner-centered
 inquiry-based
 research-based
 decongested
shows
 the place of science and
technology in everyday
activities
 the link between science and
technology, including
indigenous technology
 integration/connections
within science and across
disciplines
 how science content and
processes are intertwined
 spiral progression
Documents Reviewed
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BEC- DepEd, 2002 & 2006,
BSE,2010)
Curriculum Comparison
Report, SEAMEO INNOTECH
Curriculum Comparison
Report, Univ. of Melbourne
Current Challenges in Basic
Education (2010) UNESCO
Paris
Policy Issues in SME (2007),
ICASE-UNESCO
Science and Mathematics
Curriculum Framework of
Australia, Brunei , England,
Japan, Singapore, New
Zealand, and USA
DESD Documents
CVIF Manual (Bernido’s )
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Teach Less, Learn More (2010)
Science Curriculum
Framework for Basic
Education. DOST SEI, UP
NISMED, DepED, Professional
Teachers Association
Raising the Bar for Science
Teachers (2010) Curriculum
Framework for Science Teacher
Education. DOST SEI, UP
NISMED, DepED, Professional
Teachers Associations
TIMSS Report: 1999 & 2003;
Math Advanced, 2008
Scientific, Technological, and
Environmental Literacy Study
(2005), UP NISMED
And many more
The great aim of education is
not knowledge but action
Herbert Spencer
“Education is NOT the filling of
a bucket, but rather, it is the
lighting of a fire
William Yeats
In everything you do, put God
first and He will direct you and
crown your efforts with success
Proverbs 3:6
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