Social Change in Western Australia

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Social Change in Western
Australia
Growing bigger and more unequal
Some headline changes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Increased population
Urban expansion
Pressure on key services & infrastructure
Growing average incomes
Increased cost of living?
Heavy reliance on mining & resource sectors
But also……
Some downsides
•
•
•
•
Urban sprawl – cost, isolation, health effects;
“Fly-in”, “fly-out” life style – affects families;
Services unable to keep up;
Increased housing costs – steady decline in social
housing/ affordable housing;
• Environmental degradation;
• Growing inequality;
• Poverty levels not declining;
And some shifts in community attitudes?
How much richer are the richest 20%
than the poorest 20%?
4
Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
4
www.equalitytrust.org.uk
Australia
Distribution of Household Wealth and Household
Disposable Income by Decile
5
6
Actual, Estimated and Ideal Wealth Distribution by Quintile: Australia
8
Health and Social Problems are Worse in More Unequal Countries
Index of:
• Life expectancy
• Math & Literacy
• Infant mortality
• Homicides
• Imprisonment
• Teenage births
• Trust
• Obesity
• Mental illness – incl.
drug & alcohol addiction
• Social mobility
Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
11
www.equalitytrust.org.uk
The Prevalence of Mental Illness is Higher in More Unequal Rich
Countries
Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
12
www.equalitytrust.org.uk
Drug Use is More Common in More Unequal Countries
Index of use of: opiates, cocaine, cannabis, ecstasy, amphetamines
13
Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
www.equalitytrust.org.uk
Rates of Imprisonment are Higher in More Unequal Countries
14
Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
www.equalitytrust.org.uk
Child Well-being is Better in More Equal Rich Countries
Source: Wilkinson & Pickett, The Spirit Level (2009)
15
www.equalitytrust.org.uk
16
17
18
Impact of socio-economic status on reading outcomes (percentage of
variance in reading score explained by ESCS)
21
22
650
600
600
550
550
Mean Scale Scores
Mean Scale Scores
650
500
450
400
500
450
400
350
350
300
Yr 3 Reading Yr 5 Reading Yr 7 Reading Yr 9 Reading
Parental Occupation
300
Yr 3 Reading Yr 5 Reading Yr 7 Reading Yr 9 Reading
Parental Education
#REF!
#REF!
Year 11
Not in paid work
Year 12
Machine operators, hospitality staff, assistants and labourers
Certificate
Tradespeople, clerks, skilled office, sales and service staff
Diploma
Other business managers and associate professionals
Bachelor
Senior management and qualified professionals
Impact of disadvantage on performance – socioeconomic status
17
Cognitive Score: Socioeconomic status more important than starting point
High Cognitive Score at 22 months
Low Cognitive Score at 22 months
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Child’s age (years)
(I Feinstein. Inequality in cognitive development. 1970 British Births. Economica 2003; 70: 3-97)
(from The Marmot Review 2010)
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