pptx - Computer Science and Engineering

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CSE 486/586 Distributed Systems
Recitation
CSE 486/586, Spring 2012
Android Emulator Networking
• Note: this is my (Steve’s) best guess; actual details
might be different. But it should be good enough for
your understanding.
• Each emulator instance is attached to a virtual router.
• The virtual router runs on top of the host (probably as
an application).
• The virtual router forwards connections originated
from its emulator instance.
• However, the virtual router acts as a firewall; it blocks
all connection attempts going into its emulator
instance from somewhere else.
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Android Emulator Networking
App
App
App
connect()
connect()
connect()
emu0
emu1
emu2
VR0
VR1
VR2
Host
• What if we want to allow others (in general) to
connect to an app running inside an emulator
instance?
– Android provides redirection as a solution.
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Android Emulator Networking
• Redirection Basics
– In order to allow connection attempts going into the emulator
instance, we need to set up redirection from the virtual
router to its emulator instance.
– Since everything happens on top of the host, the only way to
enable any kind of networking is to borrow the host’s IP and
ports.
– Redirection forces the virtual router to listen on a host port
and forward all traffic coming to the host port to the emulator
instance.
• Process
– Pick a host port to borrow (that others will use to connect to)
– Set up redirection from that host port to the emulator port
that the app is listening on
– E.g., redir add tcp:<host port>:<emulator port>
» Meaning, forward all traffic from the host port to the emulator
port
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Android Emulator Networking
• On emu0: redir add tcp:10000:8080
App may or may not
listen on 8080 (not
required for
redirection).
App
emu0
VR0
8080
10000
VR0 starts listening
on 10000 & forwards
all traffic to emu0’s
8080.
Host
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Android Emulator Networking
• On emu0: redir add tcp:10000:8080
App may or may not
listen on 8080 (not
required for
redirection).
App
emu0
VR0
8080
10000
VR0 starts listening
on 10000 & forwards
all traffic to emu0’s
8080.
Host
For any connect() attempt to <host IP:10000>
(either from outside or from an app running on
the host), it will succeed.
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Android Emulator Networking
• On emu0: redir add tcp:10000:8080
This (port 8080) is not
visible to anyone
outside of VR0. All
others can only see
port 10000. This is
why you can use the
same server port
number in your app.
App may or may not
listen on 8080 (not
required for
redirection).
App
emu0
VR0
8080
10000
VR0 starts listening
on 10000 & forwards
all traffic to emu0’s
8080.
Host
For any connect() attempt to <host IP:10000>
(either from outside or from an app running on
the host), it will succeed.
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Android Emulator Networking
• On emu0: redir add tcp:10000:8080
• On emu1: redir add tcp:20000:8080
App
emu0
VR0
App
emu1
8080
VR1
10000
8080
20000
Since we’re borrowing
the host’s port
numbers, this has to
be different from
VR0’s port number.
Host
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Android Emulator Networking
• Now all connect() should be to <host IP>:<redirected
port>
App
emu0
VR0
App
emu1
8080
VR1
10000
8080
20000
Host
• E.g., connect() to <host IP>:10000 will be forwarded
to emu0:8080
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Android Emulator Networking
• IP Addresses
– A virtual router assigns an IP address to its emulator
instance (10.0.2.15) and to the host (10.0.2.2) from a private
IP range (10.0.0.0/8).
– It assigns an IP address to the host mainly for convenience
(I think…).
• In the previous example, if emu1 wants to talk to
emu0, it can use:
– connect() to 10.0.2.2:10000
• Effectively, we are identifying different emulators
using host port numbers we’re borrowing instead of
their IP:port pairs.
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Content Providers
• A content provider provides a table view of data.
• If you write a content provider, any client application
with the permission can enter/read/update/delete
data items in your content provider.
• A client application (that uses your content provider)
uses ContentResolver to interact with your content
provider.
• You need to extend ContentProvider and implement
necessary methods.
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How a Client Interacts
• Table identification  URI (android.net.Uri)
– E.g., content://user_dictionary/words
• Insert
– public final Uri ContentResolver.insert (Uri url,
ContentValues values)
• Update
– public final int ContentResolver.update (Uri uri,
ContentValues values, String where, String[] selectionArgs)
• Query
– public final Cursor ContentResolver.query (Uri uri, String[]
projection, String selection, String[] selectionArgs, String
sortOrder)
• Delete
– public final int ContentResolver.delete (Uri url, String where,
String[] selectionArgs)
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How to Write a Content Provider
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Declare in AndroidManifest.xml
Define a URI that client apps will use
Define permissions
Implement necessary methods in ContentProvider
When implementing ContentProvider, use either the
Android file system or SQLite as the actual data
storage.
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Declare in AndroidManifest.xml
<manifest ... >
...
<application ... >
<provider android:name=".ExampleProvider" />
...
</application>
</manifest>
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Defining a URI
• Typical format
– content://<authority>/<table name>
– Authority: a global (Android-wide) name for the provider
» E.g., edu.buffalo.cse.cse486.proj1.provider
– Table name: the name of a table that the provider exposes
» Note: a provider can expose more than one table.
• Should be added to AndroidManifest.xml
– E.g., <provider
android:authorities=“edu.buffalo.cse.cse486.proj1.provider”
…>…</provider>
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Define Permissions
• Should define permissions (for others) in
AndroidManifest.xml
• android:permission: Single provider-wide read/write
permission.
– E.g., <provider
android:permission=“edu.buffalo.cse.cse486.proj1.provider.
permission.USE_PROJ1_PROVIDER” …>…</provider>
• android:readPermission: Provider-wide read
permission.
• android:writePermission: Provider-wide write
permission.
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Necessary Methods
• query()
– Retrieve data from your provider.
• insert()
– Insert a new row into your provider.
• update()
– Update existing rows in your provider.
• delete()
– Delete rows from your provider.
• getType()
– Return the MIME type corresponding to a content URI.
• onCreate()
– Initialize your provider. The Android system calls this method
immediately after it creates your provider. Notice that your provider
is not created until a ContentResolver object tries to access it.
• These need to handle concurrent accesses (need to be
thread-safe)
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Storage Options
•
•
•
•
Internal storage: file system, private to the app
External storage: file system, open to everybody
SQLite: database, private to the app
Read:
http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/data/datastorage.html
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Internal Storage
• Saving files directly on the device's internal storage.
• User uninstallation  files are removed.
• To create and write a private file to the internal
storage:
– Call openFileOutput() with the name of the file and the
operating mode. This returns a FileOutputStream.
– Write to the file with write().
– Close the stream with close().
• E.g.,
String FILENAME = "hello_file";
String string = "hello world!”;
FileOutputStream fos = openFileOutput(FILENAME,
Context.MODE_PRIVATE);
fos.write(string.getBytes());
fos.close();
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Internal Storage
• MODE_PRIVATE  create the file (or replace a file
of the same name) and make it private to your
application.
• Other modes available are:
– MODE_APPEND, MODE_WORLD_READABLE, and
MODE_WORLD_WRITEABLE.
• To read a file from internal storage:
– Call openFileInput() and pass it the name of the file to read.
This returns a FileInputStream.
– Read bytes from the file with read().
– Then close the stream with close().
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External Storage
• Shared "external storage”
– E.g., a removable storage media (such as an SD card) or an
internal (non-removable) storage.
• Files saved to the external storage are:
– World-readable
– Can be modified by the user when they enable USB mass
storage to transfer files on a computer.
• Checking media availability
– Before you do any work with the external storage, you
should always call getExternalStorageState() to check
whether the media is available.
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External Storage
• Accessing files on external storage (API Level 8 or
greater)
– Use getExternalFilesDir() to open a File that represents the
external storage directory where you should save your files.
– This method takes a type parameter that specifies the type
of subdirectory you want, such as DIRECTORY_MUSIC and
DIRECTORY_RINGTONES (pass null to receive the root of
your application's file directory). This method will create the
appropriate directory if necessary.
– If the user uninstalls your application, this directory and all
its contents will be deleted.
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External Storage
• Saving files that should be shared
– For files not specific to your application and that should not
be deleted when your application is uninstalled
– Save them to one of the public directories on the external
storage.
– These directories lay at the root of the external storage,
such as Music/, Pictures/, Ringtones/, and others.
• (API Level 8 or greater)
– Use getExternalStoragePublicDirectory(), passing it the type
of public directory you want, such as DIRECTORY_MUSIC,
DIRECTORY_PICTURES, DIRECTORY_RINGTONES, or
others. This method will create the appropriate directory if
necessary.
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Services
• A service runs in the background with no UI for longrunning operations.
– Playing music, sending/receiving network messages, …
– Subclass of android.app.Service
• Started service
– A service is "started" when an application component (such
as an activity) starts it by calling startService(). Once started,
a service can run in the background indefinitely, even if the
component that started it is destroyed.
• Bound service
– A service is "bound" when an application component binds
to it by calling bindService(). A bound service offers a clientserver interface that allows components to interact with the
service, send requests, get results, and even do so across
processes with interprocess communication (IPC).
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How to Write a Service
• Declare in AndroidManifest.xml
• Implement necessary methods in Service
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Declare in AndroidManifest.xml
<manifest ... >
...
<application ... >
<service android:name=".ExampleService" />
...
</application>
</manifest>
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Necessary Methods
• onStartCommand()
– The system calls this method when another component,
such as an activity, requests that the service be started, by
calling startService().
• onBind()
– The system calls this method when another component
wants to bind with the service (such as to perform RPC), by
calling bindService().
• onCreate()
– The system calls this method when the service is first
created, to perform one-time setup procedures (before it
calls either onStartCommand() or onBind()).
• onDestroy()
– The system calls this method when the service is no longer
used and is being destroyed.
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Service Lifecycle
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