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The challenge of measurement in education: the case of out of school children data

Charles Gale

Research Associate

Education Policy and Data Center, FHI 360 [email protected]

57,247,729

Number of out of school children, primary ages, 2011

(UIS Data Centre, accessed February 2, 2014)

2011 figure available

No 2011 figure available

Map created using Stat Planet (http://www.statsilk.com/)

Overview - data gaps and EFA goal 2

Source: 2013 GMR

Overview

How many primary-aged children are out of school?

How many primary-aged children are out of school?

Data source

Variation in ‘primary

School coverage

Administrative

Household survey

Across countries

Within countries

Over time

Private providers

Pre-primary

How many primary-aged children are out of school?

Data source

Administrative

Household survey

Out of school rate, primary, administrative vs. household survey sources

10

0

50

40

30

20

70

60

2

2

9

4

7

1

7

4

Survey

13

11

1

Admin

17

13

17

5

24

23

32

41

37

32

34

13

23

44

54

48

42

44

62

56

Sources: UIS, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) * ISCED 1 definition of primary

Effect of India discrepancy between survey and administrative sources on global total of OOSC, primary

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

76.5 (UIS+HHS)

68.2 (UIS)

India, difference between HHS and admin

Source for global totals UIS Data Centre (accessed 2/16/2014)

Source for difference: EPDC (2013)

Global Initiative on Out of School Children

“It should be noted that there is no one correct figure on out-of-school children.

The numbers of OOSC from household survey data analysis and administrative data indicate the range of numbers of OOSC in a country”

(UIS-UNICEF, 2014)

How many primary-aged children are out of school?

Variation in ‘primary

Across countries

Within countries

Over time

ISCED 1 compared to national primary durations

ISCED 1 (1997)

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

Pakistan Brazil Nigeria

Source: UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE)

Country durations (where different from ISCED)

Uganda India Kenya Ethiopia

Primary duration and entry ages, India, state compared to national

State or U/T

Goa

Kerala

Maharashtra

West Bengal

Orissa

Punjab

Sikkim

Uttar Pradesh

Primary Entry Primary age Duration

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

4

4

5

5

5

5

4

4

Primary Age

Range

5-8

5-8

% OOS local ages

15%

7%

% OOS ages

6-10

4%

1%

5-8

5-8

5-9

5-9

5-9

5-9

18%

26%

15%

20%

33%

28%

9%

16%

14%

12%

20%

20%

Source: International Bureau of Education (IBE), EPDC extraction of DHS dataset

Number of out of school children, primary age,

Burkina Faso

1 400 000

1 200 000

1 000 000

800 000

600 000

400 000

200 000

0

1999 2001 2003 2005

Source: UIS Data Centre (accessed 2/2/2014)

2007 2009

1 032 931

(2010)

884 687

(2009)

2011

How many primary-aged children are out of school?

School coverage

Private providers

Pre-primary

Enrollment in unregistered schools, Kenya

Source: APHRC (2008

)

Pre-primary attendance by age, Kenya

100

75 in pre-school out of school

50

25

28

-

9

6

11

7

7

6

3

8

2

4

9 10 11 12 13

Recommendations

Recommendations

80,0

70,0

60,0

50,0

40,0

30,0

20,0

10,0

0,0

Improve timeliness of data or adjust for time trends

27,3

15,4

66,9

25,6

Banladesh 1990 UIS Bangladesh 2011 DHS DRC 1999 UIS DRC 2010 MICS

Note: UIS estimates were current at time of publication

Recommendations

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Streamline basic definitions

Household survey as alternative source for out of school children numbers

Measuring school exclusion for standard age cohort such as 7-14

Ages 7-14 Official primary ages

66,2

71,7

16,0

24,4

20,4

25,6

7,8

13,4

Ghana, DHS 2008 Congo (DRC), MICS 2010 Sudan, South, IPUMS

Census 2008

Kenya, DHS 2009

Recommendations

Build a broad understanding of data quality concerns

References

Education Policy and Data Center. (2013). Out of school children: Data challenges in measuring access to

education. Washington DC: FHI 360.

Oketch, M., Mutisya, M., Ngware, M., Ezeh, A., & Epari, C. (2008b). Pupil school mobility in urban Kenya

(APHRC Working Paper No. 38). Nairobi: African Population and Health Research Center.

UIS. (2010). Measuring educational participation: Analysis of data quality and methodology based on

ten studies. Montreal: UIS.

UIS Data Centre. Accessed at uis.unesco.org on 2/5/2014.

UIS & UNICEF. (2005). Children out of school: Measuring exclusion from Primary education. Montreal:

UIS.

References

UIS & UNICEF. (2014). Global Initiative on Out of School Children. South Asia Regional Study.

Kathmandu: UNICEF.

UNESCO. (2012). Youth and skills: Putting education to work. Education for All Global Monitoring Report

2012. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO. (2013). Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Education for All Global Monitoring

Report 2013. Paris: UNESCO.

Thank you!

Contact: [email protected]

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