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IANNIS XENAKIS AND HIS INFLUENCE ON MUSIC TECHNOLOGY TODAY XENAKIS: AN INTRODUCTION • May 29,1922 – February 4, 2001 • Greek composer, music theorist, and architect/engineer • Born in Romania. Ethnic Greek. Forced to flee to Greece after being denounced a Communist. Later became a naturalized citizen of France and worked both in the US and in France. • Post-war avant-garde composer XENAKIS: OVERVIEW OF HIS METHODS • Used mathematical models and applications of set theory, stochastic (random) processes and game theory to make his music. • Mixing music with mathematics • XENAKIS AS AN ARCHITECT • http://www.iannis-xenakis.org/xen/archi/real.html AS AN ARCHITECT • Xenakis designed the hyperbolic Phillips Pavilion with Le Corbusier for the 1958 Brussels World Fair. • Edgard Varese’s “Poeme Eletronique” • Concret PH” by Xenakis • Idea: “Math can be applied to any art form” • Le Corbusier’s sketches were hand over to Ixenakis • He was to translate them through mathematics. • Xenakis was working on“Metastasis” • So, he turned his graphical musical sketches of Metastasis into architectural schemes “METASTASIS” AS AN ARCHITECT “METASTASIS” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZazYFchLRI&fe ature=player_embedded “CONCRET PH” • Crackling sound of burning charcoal • Tape recording - cut into hundreds of tiny pieces and arranged in various densities according to theories of probability. • Controlled individual elements of sound • “Second-order sonorities” • Spectrum of small moments in time larger formal structures • Related to the concept of fractals “ANALOGIQUE B” • Tape piece written in 1959 • Xenakis’s first attempt at granular synthesis • All sounds can be represented as micro-temporal pieces of sound called “grains.” • Xenakis used data that depicted a moment in time and contained information regarding the density, frequency and amplitude of grains at that moment • Determined by Stochastics. “ORIENT-OCCIDENT” “BOHOR” (1962) “BOHOR” (1962) CELLULAR AUTOMATA (CA) • Colored cells on a grid of a specified shape • Cells change through discrete time steps based on a set of rules defined by surrounding cells. • “On” and “off” states • Discrete model – computability theory, mathematics, physics, biology, and microstructure modeling. • Xenakis used CA calculated with his “pocket computer” to determine the succession of chords within a rational, perceptible structure • His mapping was based on pre-determined pitches and the state of the cell chose the instrumentation. CELLULAR AUTOMATA • Left: Close up of Xenakis’ text/symbol pocket computer printout for his piece “Horos” • Right: Graphic blocks and stretched to line up with printout IN TERMS OF MAPPING • Xenakis was the first composer to make mathematical concepts popular in composition. • Mapping – using numbers plugged into a system that recognizes values and manipulates data by presenting it in a way that makes sense to our minds. IN TERMS OF MAPPING • Xenakis designed the UPIC (computerized music composition tool) and is the inspiration behind the program called (IanniX) • IanniX is a program that can be integrated with Max IN TERMS OF MAPPING • Dynamic stochastic synthesis • http://www.cycling74.com/forums/topic.php?id=16542 • IanniX • Graphical open source sequencer • http://vimeo.com/25041544 UPIC • Digitalizing tablet linked to a computer with a vector display. • Draw waveforms and volume envelopes on the tablet • Compose with the waveforms by drawing "compositions" on the tablet • X-axis = time • Y-axis = pitch. • Compositions can be stretched in duration, transposed, reversed, inverted, and other algorithmic transformations. • Allows for real time performance by moving the stylus across the tablet. UPIC UPIC AUTUMN THEATER FESTIVAL, PARIS • XENAKIS' POLYTOPE II DE CLUNY (2008) • http://thesoundofeye.blogspot.com/2010/05/antoncabalero-xenakis-polytope-ii-de.html CONTRIBUTION • Founded the Center for Musical Mathematics and Automation • France and the US: • Center Iannis Xenakis (CIX) • Xenakis Project of the Americas (XPA)