11SS Slides Ch. 5 WW 2(UPDATED)

advertisement
Canada and World War II
The failure of appeasement was
very disappointing…….
Waiting for Their Cue
The Halifax Herald,
Bob Chambers
Drawing, cartoon
September 1, 1939,
20th century
Ink on paper
Blitzkrieg!
September 1, 1939
German troops invade
Poland
A Polish town lies in ruins following the German invasion of Poland,
which began on September 1, 1939.
Britain and France declare
war on Germany 3rd
September, 1939
George VI
and Queen
Elizabeth
visit
Canada to
rally
support for
Britain
Canada, now a more independent
country, due to the Statute of
Westminster, could now decide for
herself whether or not to go to
war…..most supported the idea,
but the issue of conscription
worried people – it could divide
Canada again…
“So long as
this
government
may be in
power, no
such
measure
shall be
enacted.”
Canada Declares War
Canada declared war 10th September, 1939
…we were willing, but
not prepared….
Mobilizing Canada’s
Resources
Canadian troops off to war
• many volunteered
to escape the
Depression $1.30/day
• some still felt
strong ties to
Britain
• national pride for
Canadians
• unprepared in
general, armed
forces needed
building
• still some racism,
but things changed
a little bit
• Over 58,000 volunteered
• Aboriginal people volunteered at a
higher % than any other group
• African-Canadians were eventually
accepted into the regular and officer
corps
• The first troops sailed for Europe
December 10 1939
The British Commonwealth Air
Training Plan
King hoped to practice a
policy of
LIMITED
PARTICIPATION
Canada offered to run
the BCATP – British
instructors would train
pilots from all the
Commonwealth countries
King hoped we could
avoid conscription this
way
Training in Canada - BCATP
Total War
April 1940 – the end of the Phony
War, CD Howe was made Minister of
the
Department of Munitions and
Supplies
Canadians built ships, airplanes,
military vehicles, tanks
• Crown Corporations were created
to increase wartime industry
• farms increased production
• fuel, silk for parachutes, uranium –
this was TOTAL WAR –
Canadians were willing to do
anything to defeat the enemy
The War in Europe
• THE ALLIES: Britain, France,
Russia, Canada, Australia, New
Zealand etc.
• THE AXIS: Germany, Italy,
(Japan 1940)
• For seven months after the fall of
Poland, nothing much happened…
• This is known as the Phony War,
or Sitzkrieg
The Phony War
continued until
April, 1940,
when a renewed
blitzkrieg
attacked
Denmark and
Norway
May 10th, it continued, as the Wehrmacht
(German army) attacked the Netherlands
(Holland), Belgium, and finally began its
invasion of France
Evacuation at Dunkirk
338,000 Allied
soldiers were
surrounded by the
Germans
Between May 26 and 4th June, all kinds of ships/boats –
military and civilian helped evacuate the soldiers – but all
the weapons and equipment were lost
Dunkirk
Fall of France
22nd June, 1940 – France
surrenders to Germany
Farewell
Members of the
Connaught’s Own
Rifles bidding
farewell, New
Westminster, BC,
June 1940
(courtesy Library
and Archives
Canada).
The Battle of Britain
Britain was next –
Hitler’s
“Operation
Sealion”
beginning July 10th,
the German
“Luftwaffe”
(airforce) bombed
harbours and
shipping facilities,
and later, aircraft
factories and
airstrips
In September, the Germans began bombing
civilian targets for 55 nights in a row – London as
well as other cities – this was known as the “Blitz”
In London many people
used the London
Underground. At first
the Government was
against this. Eventually
they realized they could
not prevent people from
using them, and began
to provide bunks, first
aid clinics, chemical
toilets and mobile
canteens.
Elephant and Castle
tube station during
the Blitz
Hurricanes
Spitfires
• because of their new radar system, the
outnumbered RAF fought valiantly and were
successful against the Germans
• their Spitfires and Hurricanes were very
effective against the Germans
•
•
•
•
•
the United States was very isolationist at the time and wanted to stay out of what many saw as a
European war. Dr. Suess was very adamant that the United States needed to get involved because he
felt that it was only a matter of time before Hitler turned his attention to the United States.
So, how does Dr. Suess get his message across to his viewing public? First, he uses symbols. The
trees that have been pecked down represent the countries of Europe that have already been
conquered by Hitler. How does he let you know which countries they are? Quite simply, he labels
each tree with the name of the country being conquered. Cartoonists will often use this technique
where they will label items or people in their cartoons so that there is no confusion as to whom or
what they are representing. The tree that the Hitler bird is still pecking away at is England. At the
time of this cartoon, England was still under attack daily by bombers from the German Luftwaffe.
Hitler (Germany) is represented by the small evil looking bird. Dr. Suess gives him the Hitler
mustache and places a swastika on his side so that there can be no confusion as to who the bird
represents. To accentuate the evil nature of the bird, Dr. Suess gives him a malevolent expression
on his face.
The United States (and their citizens) is represented by the bird on the nest. We can tell that the bird
represents America because the hat it wears has the stars and stripes (representative of America) on
it. Here is where the brunt of Dr. Suess’ criticism is directed. He felt that more people should be
advocating for American intervention in the war instead of turning their backs on the problem. The
United Sates is represented by this very contented looking bird sitting with his back to the Hitler
bird. If you look very closely, you can see that the bird is twiddling his thumbs, a classic symbol of
someone wasting their time and doing nothing. Finally, Dr. Suess sums up public sentiment in
America with what is spoken by the United States bird, “Ho Hum! When he’s finished pecking
down that last tree he’ll quite likely be tired.” Here, Dr. Suess is mocking the attitude held by many
in the United States at the time that Germany was not a threat to them and that they should simply
ignore the problem and not worry themselves with the war in Europe. Clearly, Dr. Suess felt
differently.
As you can see, if you study the symbols, labels and text in a political cartoon, you can understand
the message that the cartoonist is trying to get across. Political cartoonists are often a reflection of
public opinion. Their use in the study of history and current events (which eventually become
history) is a valid tool for understanding how the public felt at the time.
Winston Churchill
• Allied and
Canadian pilots
joined British
ones in fighting
the Luftwaffe
• In May 1941,
Hitler gave up
temporarily – he
had other things
he needed to do
• for the first time,
Germany had lost
The War
TheSpreads
War Spreads
now, Hitler looked to the east- to his ally Russia, in
“Operation Barbarossa”
Hitler was concerned that the USSR
might take too much land in Eastern
Europe, and he badly needed:
• wheat from the Ukraine
• oil from the Caucasus Mountains
• Soviet Russia was surprised and unprepared
• 22nd June, 1941 – the Germans attacked, (3 million soldiers), sure of a quick
victory
at first, as they
retreated, the
Russians drew
the Germans
deep into their
territory – Stalin
also announced a
"scorched earth
policy” to deny
the Germans "a
single engine, or a
single railway
truck, and not a
pound of bread
nor a pint of oil."
By autumn, the Germans were within
sight of Moscow and Leningrad
• Hitler had failed to properly equip his
troops for the bitter Russian winter –
does this remind you of anyone?
• the Germans attempted to take
Stalingrad, but, again faced with
winter conditions, were forced to
surrender in early 1943
• the Soviets gradually retook their land,
and advanced into eastern Europe
The War in the Pacific
As a member
of the Axis
powers, Japan
had not been
involved in
Europe, but
had taken
large parts of
China in 1933
(Manchukuo)
Japan needed
resources such
as rubber, tin,
and oil
Tora! Tora! Tora!
7th December, 1941 – Japan
bombs Pearl Harbour –
destroying half the fleet
USS Arizona
Japanese “Zero”
• The US declared war on Japan
• Germany and Italy- Japan’s allies
– declared war on the US
• Japan continued to invade
Southeast Asia
"I fear all we have done is awakened
a sleeping giant and filled him with
terrible resolve" . Even though the
words may not have been uttered by
Yamamoto, it did seem to capture his
feelings about the attack. He is on
record as saying, in the previous year,
that "I can run wild for six months
… after that, I have no expectation of
success." (Yamamoto)
"Being saturated and satiated with
emotion and sensation, I went to
bed and slept the sleep of the saved
and thankful." The Allied victory in
this war and the subsequent U.S.
emergence as a dominant world
power have shaped international
politics ever since. (Churchill)
Anti-Japanese sentiment in the U.S.
peaked during World War II. The
government subsidized the production of
propaganda posters using racial
stereotypes. Shown here Adolf Hitler
and Hideki Tojo of the Axis alliance
American
Propaganda
Japanese Propaganda
Hong Kong
Christmas Day 1941 –
1975 Canadians either
killed or taken
prisoner
many died as a result of poor
treatment in prisoner of war
camps
Phillipines 7th December
1941
Canada’s Role in Europe
The Soviets, exhausted from
fighting Germany on the Eastern
Front, needed the Allies to open
up a western front – thus forcing
it to fight on two fronts
The Dieppe Raid
Operation Jubilee
• Attack on Festung
Europa – Fortress Europe
– Aug 1942
•trial run
•Test new techniques,
equipment
•Reconnaissance for
future mission
•Canadians were anxious
to take part
Canadians before the raid
After the Dieppe raid
• said to have been a “trial run”, the Dieppe raid was a
disaster
• it was to test the men and equipment, as well as to serve as
“reconnaissance”
• Dieppe was occupied by the Germans
• Canadian troops were landed in daylight instead of predawn darkness – they were easy targets for the Germans
• communication was awful – they sent more troops ashore,
thinking things were going well
• tanks would not work on the pebble beach – the raid was a
failure
• in 9 hours – 907 Canadian soldiers were killed
• 586 wounded
• 1874 taken as prisoners of war
• it is still a debatable point as to whether it was worth it – of
course the authorities claimed to have learned from the
“mistake”, but who knows?
Canadians at Sea
In 1939 the Canadian navy was
short of equipment and men
Britain relied on food and military supplies from
Canada and the US, but merchant ships were being
sunk by “wolf packs”
• Germany tried to starve Britain by cutting off
shipping routes
• convoys were used for protection
Canadian “Corvettes” were built to help
• The Battle of the Atlantic was
tough – lots of ships sunk
• u-boats even made it into the
Gulf of St. Lawrence
• things improved as the Allies
cracked German naval codes
• long-range Liberator
bombers helped out the
convoys
“the only thing that ever really
frightened me was the u-boat peril”
~ Winston Churchill
Canadian
Frigate in
the North
Atlantic
Depth charges
explode astern a
frigate in the
North Atlantic,
January 1944
(courtesy Library
and Archives)
• By May 1942, the British cracked the
German naval code, allowing the Allies
to track German u-boats
• More Allied ships were being built
than sunk
• Liberator bombers protected much of
the convoy route
• Canada’s navy grew to over
100,000 sailors
• The Royal Canadian Navy is
credited with having
provided over half the
escorts across the Atlantic
Canadians in the Air
RCAF – The Royal Canadian Air
Force – established 1924
Casualty rates were high – 10,000 bomber crew lost
RCAF created a women’s auxiliary division to support
the war effort – but women were not allowed to be in
combat
Canadians took
part in bombing
raids all over
Europe, North
Africa, and
Southeast Asia, as
well as the night
bombings over
Germany,
designed to
destroy German
industry.
Britain and
Canada attacked
at night, the US by
day
Hamburg
Wesel
Canada took part in night
raids on Hamburg
Cologne
“ There were forty-three of us
graduated, forty-three of us went to
England. There were only three
survivors”
~BCATP graduate
• Women joined the RCAF
• Clerks, cooks, hospital assistants, drivers, telephone
operators, welders, instrument mechanics, engine
mechanics
• Women pilots were later allowed to deliver planes to
Britain, but were never allowed to engage in combat
The Tide Turns
• The Americans had joined
• things began to improve in the Atlantic
and the Pacific
• by 1943 the Allies had reclaimed North
Africa and could once again focus on
Europe
• January 1943 – the Soviets surrounded
250,000 German soldiers at Stalingrad
– many see this as the TURNING
POINT in the war
The Invasion of Italy
• British PM wanted to
recapture Europe through the
“soft underbelly” of Europe –
Italy and Sicily
• 10th July, 1943, Canadians
took part in the successful
capture of Sicily
then they moved to mainland
Italy, and fought in horrible
weather and conditions
• Canadians fought for a
month at Ortona, and finally
the Germans withdrew
Sicily, 1943
Royal Canadian Artillery firing at enemy positions, Sicily, 1943 (photo by
J. Smith, courtesy DND/Library and Archives Canada/PA-151748).
Ortona
Ortona
• At Ortona,
after a month
fighting, 1372
soldiers were
lost
• Rome fell 4th
June, 1944, but
fighting
continued until
the spring of
1945
D-Day and Liberation
OPERATION
OVERLORD
• June 6th 1944
biggest Allied
invasion of the war
• full-scale invasion of
Europe
• 5 landing points –
Sword – Juno – Gold –
Omaha – Utah
• first – paratroopers and
air attacks
•Allied troops under the
command of General
Eisenhower
• June 6th 1944, 30,000 Canadian soldiers
landed at Juno beach in Normandy
• Allied troops were helped by massive
air and naval support
• Plans had been kept secret
• The Germans were not expecting an
attack, due to poor weather
• 359 Canadians died, 715 wounded
Normandy
6th June
1944
attacks on the beaches – Canadians landed at Juno beach
Normandy Landing
Troops of Nova Scotian Highlanders and Highland Light Infantry going ashore from LCI 299 (left) at
Bernières-sur-mer, Normandy, 6 June 1944 (photo by G. Milne, courtesy Library and Archives
Canada).
Within a few weeks, the
Allies had landed a
million troops
Battle for Falaise After a series of fierce battles, Canadians finally seized Falaise on 16
August 1944 (courtesy Library and Archives Canada).
• it had been kept secret from the Germans
• the weather had been bad – in fact D-Day
had been delayed – but then it improved a
bit
• it took 11 months to liberate – through
France, Belgium, Holland and on to
Germany, and the casualties grew
• the Russians were advancing on Germany
from the East
• in September, Canadians marched through
Dieppe
Canadians were specifically given the
task of liberating Holland
Germany surrendered 7th May, 1945
30th April, Hitler had committed suicide with Eva Braun rather
than turn himself in to the Allies
V-E Day
Celebrations
V-E (Victory in
Europe) Day was
celebrated all across
Canada, as in Ottawa
shown here on 8 May
1945 (courtesy
Library and Archives
Canada).
The Holocaust Discovered
There were camps in many places in Europe
• There were camps in many places in Europe
• by 1941, the anti-Semitic and racist views of Hitler and the
Nazis had graduated to the “FINAL SOLUTION”
• Concentration camps became death camps – some of the
most famous were Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen, Treblinka,
Dachau, and Buchenwald
• scientists experimented in many ways – but particularly to
find the fastest and most efficient ways to kill
• Jews were transported by train to the camps
• the weak, elderly and the young were sent immediately to
the “showers”, where Zyklon-B canisters were released
into the showers
• others were put to work until they became ill or too weak
to work
• by 1945, over 6 million Jews, Roma, Slavs and other
“inferiors” had been murdered in the Holocaust
Allied troops watch a passing cart
laden with corpses intended for burial
leave the compound of the Dachau
concentration camp. Allied authorities
required local farmers to drive their
loaded carts through the town of
Dachau as an education for the
inhabitants.
Japan Surrenders
• Japan’s army in 1945 remained strong, but
the navy and air force had weakened
• after conquering much of the Pacific area, it
became difficult to defend
• industrial Japan had need the resources of
other areas, and had admired Hitler’s
successes in Europe
• The Japanese, however, would not give up,
but vowed to fight to the last man…
kamikaze attacks
continued –
suicide pilots,
driven to gain
honour – like
the divine
winds of the
13th century,
when Japan
was saved
from Mongol
attack by a
typhoon, or
divine wind
Kamikaze damage
• May/June 1942, the Americans won the
Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle
of Midway
• Atoll-hopping tactics proved successful
• 1944, the Americans sank much of the
Japanese fleet at the Battle of Leyte
Gulf, but jungle fighting would
continue for over a year
MacArthur returns to the Philippines
…attacking at dawn…1943
Iwo Jima, February 1945
..the Japanese still vowed to
“fight to the last person…”
So…… because of
the “Manhattan project”, the
Americans decided to drop an
atomic bomb on Japan.
Col. Paul W. Tibbets, pilot
of the B-29 Superfortress
ENOLA GAY, waves from
the cockpit just before
taking off from Tinian
Island to drop the Atomic
Bomb on Hiroshima. The
9,000 lb. bomb was
dropped from 31,600 feet
and detonated at 8:15 a.m.,
August 6, 1945, about 1,900
feet above the center of
Hiroshima. A blinding
light, tremendous explosion
and dark gray cloud
enveloped the city, followed
by a rising mushroom
shaped cloud. The
Japanese estimated 72,000
were killed and 70,000 out
of 76,000 buildings in the
city were destroyed.
Nagasaki August 9th 1945
The Japanese surrendered.
World War Two was over.
Why the bomb was needed or justified:
• The Japanese had demonstrated near-fanatical resistance, fighting to
almost the last man on Pacific islands, committing mass suicide on
Saipan and unleashing kamikaze attacks at Okinawa. Fire bombing
had killed 100,000 in Tokyo with no discernible political effect. Only
the atomic bomb could jolt Japan's leadership to surrender.
• With only two bombs ready (and a third on the way by late August
1945) it was too risky to "waste" one in a demonstration over an
unpopulated area.
• An invasion of Japan would have caused casualties on both sides that
could easily have exceeded the toll at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
• The two targeted cities would have been firebombed anyway.
• Immediate use of the bomb convinced the world of its horror and
prevented future use when nuclear stockpiles were far larger.
• The bomb's use impressed the Soviet Union and halted the war quickly
enough that the USSR did not demand joint occupation of Japan.
Why the bomb was not needed, or unjustified:
• Japan was ready to call it quits anyway. More than 60 of its cities had
been destroyed by conventional bombing, the home islands were being
blockaded by the American Navy, and the Soviet Union entered the
war by attacking Japanese troops in Manchuria.
• American refusal to modify its "unconditional surrender" demand to
allow the Japanese to keep their emperor needlessly prolonged Japan's
resistance.
• A demonstration explosion over Tokyo harbor would have convinced
Japan's leaders to quit without killing many people.
• Even if Hiroshima was necessary, the U.S. did not give enough time for
word to filter out of its devastation before bombing Nagasaki.
• The bomb was used partly to justify the $2 billion spent on its
development.
• The two cities were of limited military value. Civilians outnumbered
troops in Hiroshima five or six to one.
• Japanese lives were sacrificed simply for power politics between the
U.S. and the Soviet Union.
• Conventional firebombing would have caused as much significant
damage without making the U.S. the first nation to use nuclear
weapons.
Gen. Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander
during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in
Tokyo Bay. September 2, 1945.
The War at Home
•
•
•
•
Total war involved everyone
Soon, there was a labour shortage
Factory production was up
Women filled in again – as welders,
machine operators, drillers, etc.
• They became known as “Rosie the
Riveter”
• Single women
were in demand
for factories
• Married women
found work,
though, as well,
and some
factories put in
daycares
• Many moved to
industrial cities
• Many women
were housed in
dormitories
This Canadian World War
II poster shows a soldier
with a machine gun, a
worker with a rivet gun, and
a woman with a hoe to
encourage workers on the
home front.
Japanese Internment
• when Japan entered the war, many in British Columbia
feared Canada might be attacked
• after Pearl Harbor and Hong Kong, communities “blacked
out” at night
• some became suspicious of Japanese-Canadians – these
attitudes were fueled by racism and gossip
• in 1941, there were 23, 000 Japanese Canadians in BC
• neither the government nor the RCMP considered them a
threat – IT WAS THE PEOPLE who pressured the
government
• under the War Measures Act, Japanese-Canadians were
“invited” to relocate to the interior to live in internment
camps
• soon, it became compulsory
• some families became
separated, so they had
the option of going to
Alberta or Manitoba to
work on farms
• in 1943, Japanese
property was sold off –
and the proceeds of the
sales went to the
government – the
people lost everythinghomes, fishing boats,
shops, cars etc.
• after the war, they had two options:
return to war-ravaged Japan, or settle
east of the Rockies
• in 1988, the federal government
formally apologized, and offered
$21,000 to each surviving victim of
relocation, and offered to restore
Canadian citizenship to those who had
lost it by moving back to Japan
Canada’s Wartime Economy
• People had more
money, but there was
less to buy
• King wanted to avoid
inflation, and post-war
debt
• The purchase of war
bonds was encouraged
• Income tax was
increased, to pay for
the war
• Inflation,
however, did
occur, so the
wartime Prices
and Trade
Board froze
wages and
prices
• Food rationing
was introduced
Social Change
• Unions were limited by wage and price
controls
• Demand for labour, however, worked
in the unions’ favour
• Strikes in NS, BC, and Alberta forced
the government to allow workers to
join unions and force employers to
recognize the unions
• The success of the CCF caused the
liberals to look at change in
government
• In 1940, unemployment insurance was
introduced
• The Family Allowance program was
introduced in 1945 to help support
child maintenance
• Canada’s policy of “cradle to grave”
had begun
Conscription
• The government introduced the
National Resources Mobilization Act
• It granted special powers to defeat the
enemy
• It allowed for conscription, but only for
home defense
• Under pressure from the
Conservatives, King held a plebiscite
• In all provinces, except Québec, voters said YES to
conscription
• an amendment to the NRMA allowed for overseas
conscription
• King’s response…”not necessarily conscription,
but conscription if necessary” did not fool
Quebecers
• By 1944, there was a shortage of trained infantry
• Of 12,000 conscripts, only 2463 reached the
battlefront
• Once again, Canada was left divided
What the War Meant to Canada
• Canada contributed greatly with military and economic
support
• It became known as the “arsenal of democracy”
• The economy boomed – from aluminum to paper to oil
• The gross domestic product (GDP) rose dramatically
• Agriculture was overtaken by industry
• Canadian industrial cities would later attract immigartion
that would contribute to a multicultural society
• Canada had become a modern industrial nation.
• World War II became a defining event in the development
of Canada's identity
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards