宾语补足语的用法

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宾语补足语
的用法
英语的五个基本结构
S 十 V
主谓结构
S 十 V 十 P
主系表结构
S 十 V 十 O
主谓宾结构
S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2
主谓双
宾结构
S 十 V 十 O 十 C
主谓宾补结构
说明:
S=主语;V=谓语;P=表语;
O=宾语;O1=间接宾语;O2=直接宾语;
C=宾语补足语
1.S 十 V 句式
He runs quickly.他跑得快。
2.S 十 V 十 P 句式:
The story sounds interesting.这个故事听起来有趣。
3.S 十 V 十 O 句式
They built a house last year.他们去年建了一所房子。
4.S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 句式
He offered me his seat / his seat to me.他把座位让给我。
5.S 十 V 十 O 十 C 句式
They found her happy that day.他们发现那天她很高兴。
I found him out.我发现他出去了。
They named the boy Charlie.他们给这个男孩起名为查理。
I saw him come in and go out.我见他进来又出去。
They felt the car moving fast.他们感到汽车行驶得很快。
He found the door of study closed to him.他发现研究所的大
门对他关闭了。
一、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有:
1、名词:
We made him our monitor.
They thought this good advice.
They named their daughter Jenny.
注①:常用名词充当宾语补足语的动词有:
call, name, elect, make, think, appoint, choose, find, consider, keep,
wish, feel等。
注②:充当宾语补足语的名词若表示正式的或独一无二的头衔、职
位时,前面一般不用冠词,如:
They elected John chairman of the committee.
一、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有:
2、形容词:
You should keep your room clean and tidy.
We’d better leave the door open.
注:常用形容词充当宾语补足语的动词有:
believe, think, get, keep, make, find, set, like, wish, see, consider,
prove, have, leave, 以及paint, drive, turn, cut 等。
3、现在分词:
I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long.
I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face.
At this moment she noticed the teacher coming in.
一、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有:
4、动词不定式:
Nobody could make him change his mind.
Would you like me to come along with you?
He believed the earth to be a globe.
5、过去分词:
He watched the TV set carried out of the room.
Last year they had their house rebuilt.
When you speak English, be sure to make yourself understood.
6.此外,副词和介词短语也可以充当宾语补足语,如:
When do you want it back?
Why didn’t you invite them in?
We could hear the children at play outside.
二、宾语和其补足语之间的逻辑关系:
1、当名词、形容词、副词和介词短语充当宾语补足语时,它们和
宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系(或称表语关系),若无宾语补足
语,则句意不完整。宾语补足语说明宾语的情况、性质、特征、状
态、身份或属类等。试比较:
We made him our monitor. (He is our monitor.)
You should keep your room clean and tidy. (Your room is clean
and tidy.)
We could hear the children at play outside. (The children are at
play outside.)
二、宾语和其补足语之间的逻辑关系:
3、当过去分词充当宾语补足语时,它与宾语之间有着动宾关系,
即:宾语是过去分词所表示的动作的承受者,如:
I once heard this song sung in Japanese.
(This song was once sung in Japanese.)
I didn’t want the children taken out in such weather.
(The children were taken out in such weather.)
三、在用现在分词或不定式作宾语补足语的动词中,有些只能用现
在分词作宾语补足语;有些只能用不定式作宾语补足语;还有的动
词既能用现在分词又可用不定式作宾语补足语:
1、只能用现在分词作宾语补足语的动词有:catch, keep, mind,
prevent, stop, smell, excuse 等。例如:
She caught her son smoking a cigarette.
His words started me thinking.
2、只能用不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:wish, desire, expect, love,
prefer, trust, encourage, let, allow, permit, mean, lead, bring, put,
hurry, cause, remind, ask, invite, beg, request, worry, advise,
persuade, call on, tell, order, command, require, make, force, drive,
forbid, warn, help, teach, show, assist, report, bear, wait for // think,
take, know, judge, consider, suppose, believe, allow, prove, declare等。
3、既能用现在分词又可用不定式作宾语补足语的动词有 :see,
watch, notice, look at, observe, listen to, hear, feel, have, imagine,
discover, like, want, understand, hate, get, set, leave等。
四、使用不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式符号 to 的取舍问题:
1、在hear, listen to, let, have, make, see, watch, notice, observe 等动
词后的不定式需省去 to 。
2、feel 一词,跟 to be 型不定式带 to;跟 to do 型不定式不带 to。
3、help 一词后的不定式,可带 to,也可以不带 to。
(请参见“动词不定式”一节)
五、在复合宾语中,宾语通常为名词或代词,但有时也可
以用不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或that从句来充当。
这时,应使用先行it代替宾语,而将真正的宾语移到句子
的后部,如:
I felt it necessary to speak about our shortcomings.
Do you consider it any good trying again?
We all thought it a pity that you couldn’t join us.
注意:在这种结构中,宾语补足语通常为名词或形容词;常用
于这种结构的动词有:
feel, find, think, make, take, judge, consider 等。
Practice
单句改错
1. The speaker raised his voice but still
couldn’t make himself understand.
understood
2. We all elected Jason the monitor.
3. The teacher asked us not make so
to
much noise.
4. --- What a nice fire you have in your
fireplace!
--- During the winter I like my
house warmly
warm and comfortable.
5. Don’t leave the water run while you
brush your teeth.
running
6. He pushed the dooropen
opening.
7. She looked around and caught a man
put his hand into the pocket of a
putting
to
passenger.
8. With a lot of difficult problems settle,
the newly-elected president is having a
hard time.
hidden
9. When I came in, I found a boy
hide
behind the door.
10. It was a pity that the great writer
withof his works unfinished.
died
单项选择
1. Tell him _____ the window.
A. to shut not
B. not to shut
C. to not shut
D. not shut
2. ----There’s a hole in your bag.
---- I know, I’m going to have it _____.
A. mend
B. mending
C. mended
D. to be mended
3. Though he had often made his little sister ____, today
he was made ____ by his little sister.
A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry
4. They would not allow him _____ across the enemy line.
A. to risk going
B. risking to go
C. for risk to go
D. risk going
5. I found the door _____ when I got home.
A. opened
B. close
C. unlocking
D. open
6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but
his mother told him ___.
A. not to
B. not to do
C. not do
D. do not to
7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise____.
A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on
8. With a lot of difficult problems_____, the newlyelected president is having a hard time.
A. settled
B. settling
C. to settle D. being settled
9. I advised _____ at once.
A. him to starting
B. him to start
C. to starting
D. to start
10. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his
heart still ____.
A. beat B. to be beating C. beating D. was beating
11. You had better get a doctor _____ your bad tooth.
A. pull out B. to pull out C. pulled out D. pulling out
12. He managed to make himself____with his____English.
A. understand; breaking
B. understand; broken
C. understood; breaking
D. understood; broken
13. The doctor asked him not to leave his wound ______.
A. expose
B. exposed
C. to expose D. exposing
Thank you
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