Chapter 17- Russia, Belarus, Ukraine

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Chapter 17
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
How big is Russia?
• When Russian leaders in Moscow are sitting
down for dinner in the evening, its already
tomorrow morning and people are getting
ready to go to work in Russia's far East.
• 9 time zones
• More than twice the size of the United States.
• Most maps show distorted size of Russia, so it
looks even bigger on maps.
• It is the largest country in the World!
Water in the Region
• Russia, the largest country in the world, is
home to Lake Baikal, the deepest lake on
Earth. 1/5 of all freshwater – 20%
• Rivers flowing north are• very often frozen.
–
How does this create floods?
–
How does this effect transportation?
–
What ocean does a North flowing river from
Russia drain into?
Mountains
• Ural Mountains
– Rolling hills
– Easier for roads and trains
• Caucasus Mountains
– In between the Black sea and Caspian sea
– Very tall
Climate
• Western Russia = moderate temps but
very cold winters
• Eastern Russia = cold and dry
– No warm moist air from Atlantic,
because Russia is to wide. (9 time zones)
• North Eastern Russia = Record temp -90
degrees
Transportation
• Many rivers flow
North and are often
frozen
• Large boats called
icebreakers help to
break up ice and clear
waterways for
transportation.
Vegetation
• North= Tundra = low shrubs, mosses
• Central = Taiga = Large Forests, but
limited farming
• South = Steppe = Large forests, and one
of the world’s major grain-producing areas.
Natural Resources
• Russia’s forest, energy, and mineral resources
are among the richest in the world.
– Over production has wasted much of the
forests.
• Huge oil reserves in Caspian sea area
Pipelines carry oil to major cities for
consumption
• Large coal reserves that could last centuries.
Sec 1 Objectives
1. Identify the landforms and rivers found in
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus
2. Explain the factors that influence the
region’s climates and vegetation.
3. Describe the region’s natural resources.
Section 2 objectives
• Objectives
1. What are some major events in the
growth of the Russian Empire
2. How did the Soviet Union develop, and
what was life like for its citizens
3. What are some features of the region’s
culture?
Russian Empire
• A.D. 800’s - Scandinavian traders (roos)
set up in Kiev to trade between the
Mediterranean Sea and the Baltic Sea.
• These roos travelled north, setting up
cities where rivers came together. Moscow
is an example.
• Mongols took over in A.D. 1204
Empire cont.
• Ivan III – Won control of parts of Russia
from the Mongols. (Late 1400’s)
• 1547 – Ivan IV( Aka. Ivan the terrible)
crowned himself the Czar of all of Russia.
• Peter the Great, czar from 1682 – 1725,
expanded into what is now Belarus and
Ukraine. He built St. Petersburg
• Then Catherine the Great expanded into
the Volga Region.
End of Empire
• Russian life was tough
• Poor harvests led to food shortages and
an economic depression.
• World War 1 caused huge losses to the
empire.
• In 1917, Bolsheviks overthrew the
government (Russian revolution) and killed
the czar and his family.
Soviet Union
• Bolsheviks were led by
Vladimir Lenin.
– He set a communistic
society in which leaders,
Soviets, made the laws.
– The Russian Empire was
renamed the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics.
USSR
– The USSR included 15
republics, based solely on
ethnic territories.
Stalin
• Lenin died in 1924, and Joseph Stalin took
power until 1953.
• Set up command economy and promoted
Autarky.
– Tried to produce everything they needed
– No trade
– They were losing to United States and
Western Europe.
Stalin's Rule
• Personal freedoms
were limited and
could get you thrown
in jail.
• Tried to stop religious
worship because it
lessoned the loyalty
to the state.
• Millions died of
starvation or in prison.
End of the Soviet Union
• The Soviet Union began to fall apart in
1990, and eventually collapsed in 1991.
• Life changed immediately as news from
the world could reach the region, and
personal freedoms expanded.
• The rapid change did cause some
hardships.
Settlement
• 25% of Russia lies in Europe. However, 80% of
its population lives there.
• 2/3 of the populations live in cities
9 million in Moscow
5 million in St. Petersburg
• Population is decreasing
- High Death Rate, Low Birth Rate, Emigration
The Region Today
• Objectives
1. How have the economies of area within
the region developed.
2. What challenges does the region face.
Economic Development
• Shifting from command to market
economy
• Shifting from communism to democracy
– Tension is high• between supporters
and opponents of reform
• Cities are developing shopping centers
and luxury homes.
Moscow Region
• Moscow is Russia’s
heart and soul
– Leader in:
•
•
•
•
•
Communication
Transportation
Education
Finance
Politics
Kremlin
• The Kremlin is a
castle that is situated
at the heart of
Moscow.
• It has four palaces
and four cathedrals.
• The site is the official
residence of the
president of Russia.
Other Regions
• St. Petersburg – Cultural attractions and
high tech industries
• Volga and Ural Regions – Heavy industry
and great hydroelectricity. Very rich in
resources
• Siberia – Very cold harsh region, but rich
with lumber and gold. Trans-Siberian
railroad ( 5800 miles) helps to distribute
the goods. Many jobs were created.
Ukraine and Belarus
• Kiev is Ukraine’s Capital
– Rich with agriculture, energy, and industry
• Belarus has few resources and relies on
education to support its labor force and
economy.
Issues and Challenges
• The soviets, in a rush to become an
economic power, paid no attention to the
environment.
• Huge areas are very polluted
– Power Plant Chernobyl
• The government tried to cover up a nuclear
explosion.
• Radiation spread as far away as Sweden and
France.
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