Chapter 17 Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus How big is Russia? • When Russian leaders in Moscow are sitting down for dinner in the evening, its already tomorrow morning and people are getting ready to go to work in Russia's far East. • 9 time zones • More than twice the size of the United States. • Most maps show distorted size of Russia, so it looks even bigger on maps. • It is the largest country in the World! Water in the Region • Russia, the largest country in the world, is home to Lake Baikal, the deepest lake on Earth. 1/5 of all freshwater – 20% • Rivers flowing north are• very often frozen. – How does this create floods? – How does this effect transportation? – What ocean does a North flowing river from Russia drain into? Mountains • Ural Mountains – Rolling hills – Easier for roads and trains • Caucasus Mountains – In between the Black sea and Caspian sea – Very tall Climate • Western Russia = moderate temps but very cold winters • Eastern Russia = cold and dry – No warm moist air from Atlantic, because Russia is to wide. (9 time zones) • North Eastern Russia = Record temp -90 degrees Transportation • Many rivers flow North and are often frozen • Large boats called icebreakers help to break up ice and clear waterways for transportation. Vegetation • North= Tundra = low shrubs, mosses • Central = Taiga = Large Forests, but limited farming • South = Steppe = Large forests, and one of the world’s major grain-producing areas. Natural Resources • Russia’s forest, energy, and mineral resources are among the richest in the world. – Over production has wasted much of the forests. • Huge oil reserves in Caspian sea area Pipelines carry oil to major cities for consumption • Large coal reserves that could last centuries. Sec 1 Objectives 1. Identify the landforms and rivers found in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus 2. Explain the factors that influence the region’s climates and vegetation. 3. Describe the region’s natural resources. Section 2 objectives • Objectives 1. What are some major events in the growth of the Russian Empire 2. How did the Soviet Union develop, and what was life like for its citizens 3. What are some features of the region’s culture? Russian Empire • A.D. 800’s - Scandinavian traders (roos) set up in Kiev to trade between the Mediterranean Sea and the Baltic Sea. • These roos travelled north, setting up cities where rivers came together. Moscow is an example. • Mongols took over in A.D. 1204 Empire cont. • Ivan III – Won control of parts of Russia from the Mongols. (Late 1400’s) • 1547 – Ivan IV( Aka. Ivan the terrible) crowned himself the Czar of all of Russia. • Peter the Great, czar from 1682 – 1725, expanded into what is now Belarus and Ukraine. He built St. Petersburg • Then Catherine the Great expanded into the Volga Region. End of Empire • Russian life was tough • Poor harvests led to food shortages and an economic depression. • World War 1 caused huge losses to the empire. • In 1917, Bolsheviks overthrew the government (Russian revolution) and killed the czar and his family. Soviet Union • Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Lenin. – He set a communistic society in which leaders, Soviets, made the laws. – The Russian Empire was renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. USSR – The USSR included 15 republics, based solely on ethnic territories. Stalin • Lenin died in 1924, and Joseph Stalin took power until 1953. • Set up command economy and promoted Autarky. – Tried to produce everything they needed – No trade – They were losing to United States and Western Europe. Stalin's Rule • Personal freedoms were limited and could get you thrown in jail. • Tried to stop religious worship because it lessoned the loyalty to the state. • Millions died of starvation or in prison. End of the Soviet Union • The Soviet Union began to fall apart in 1990, and eventually collapsed in 1991. • Life changed immediately as news from the world could reach the region, and personal freedoms expanded. • The rapid change did cause some hardships. Settlement • 25% of Russia lies in Europe. However, 80% of its population lives there. • 2/3 of the populations live in cities 9 million in Moscow 5 million in St. Petersburg • Population is decreasing - High Death Rate, Low Birth Rate, Emigration The Region Today • Objectives 1. How have the economies of area within the region developed. 2. What challenges does the region face. Economic Development • Shifting from command to market economy • Shifting from communism to democracy – Tension is high• between supporters and opponents of reform • Cities are developing shopping centers and luxury homes. Moscow Region • Moscow is Russia’s heart and soul – Leader in: • • • • • Communication Transportation Education Finance Politics Kremlin • The Kremlin is a castle that is situated at the heart of Moscow. • It has four palaces and four cathedrals. • The site is the official residence of the president of Russia. Other Regions • St. Petersburg – Cultural attractions and high tech industries • Volga and Ural Regions – Heavy industry and great hydroelectricity. Very rich in resources • Siberia – Very cold harsh region, but rich with lumber and gold. Trans-Siberian railroad ( 5800 miles) helps to distribute the goods. Many jobs were created. Ukraine and Belarus • Kiev is Ukraine’s Capital – Rich with agriculture, energy, and industry • Belarus has few resources and relies on education to support its labor force and economy. Issues and Challenges • The soviets, in a rush to become an economic power, paid no attention to the environment. • Huge areas are very polluted – Power Plant Chernobyl • The government tried to cover up a nuclear explosion. • Radiation spread as far away as Sweden and France.