Farmers settled near their lands protected by high stone walls and usually held between 150 and 200 people.
1. Flat lands
2. Fertile soil
3. Near water
Occupation Period Rivers Main Subsistence Building Shape
Village at Mallaha
10 000 – 8000BC Most likely Gazelle, boar, deer Round
Village at Murreybet
8000BC Most likely Graminacae, Square
Located in Turkey
Home to 7000 people
Square/rectangular houses built of bricks
No streets. Houses were attached to each other.
Interior walls decorated with frescos of bulls, deer, boars, bears and hunting scenes along with statuettes of mother goddesses for fertility.
: With the abundance of food, the global population increased considerably. Along with this increase in population, came an increase in skilled tradesmen, creating;
Social Division of Labour:
The emergence of new skilled trades added a social division of labour to the existing sexual division.
Mining Basketry Pottery Weaving Metallurgy Warriors
Earlier on, the entire village participated in agricultural work, but complex tasks were slowly assigned to specific individuals.
These people gave up agriculture. They are no longer linked to perform tasks directly linked to food production.
Models of Political organization: ◦
Strong Central Authority:
A single leader advised by his close family and friends controls the village and coordinates all major ◦
This assembly gathers together the families of the village to make community based decisions.
Political power = Social hierarchy.
Skilled trades people were deemed more important and powerful within a group, than mere peasants. They may have received more food from the surplus.
My mother continued her shopping at the same stores, she used to visit, having to travel great distances for food. Is that not the same as having to go and hunt for food? If we were sedentary, why didn’t she simply go to the local stores like the Neolithic individuals tending to their gardens?