Water Systems Review Assignment

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Water Systems Review
Assignment
Answers
How much of Earth’s supply of
water is ocean water?
• 97.2%
How much of Earth’s supply of
water is fresh water?
• 2.8 %
What is salinity?
• The amount salt that is dissolved in the
water
Do all oceans have the same
salinity?
• No. It varies from one body of water to
the next.
Does Canada have a lot of fresh
water? Explain
• Yes because Canada has numerous rivers,
glaciers, lakes, marshes, bogs and
swamps. These are all sources of fresh
water
What are some examples of Fresh
Water?
• Rivers, glaciers, lakes, marshes, bogs and
swamps.
Draw a pie chart describing the
distribution of water on Earth.
Draw a labeled diagram of the
Water Cycle.
• See chart
How does water cause erosion?
• Water near the bank of a body of water
moves some of the soil into the water.
Over time, much of the soil on the bank
gets moved and thus the shape of the
Earth is changed.
Floods are a major concern for
people living where?
• On floodplains (low lands where excess
water can flow)
What is the water table?
• The water table is where water builds up
under ground when it hits an impermeable
layer of rock or clay.
How does digging a well take
advantage of the water table?
• Because by digging a well, we can get
access to underground water.
Explain how the water cycle affects
the water table.
• During periods of drought, the water table
goes down because the earth around it is
dry. During periods of precipitation, it will
rise.
Explain why as rain begins to fall, it
does not reach the saturated zone
immediately.
• Because it has to percolate through the
soil first. This does not happen instanly.
Why can people not swim in water that has a higher than
normal amount of microorganisms? How can the amount
of microorganisms in water increase drastically?
• People could get sick or skin irritation from
swimming in water that has a high content
of microorganisms.
• Microorganisms increase in water when
too much pollution is present. Pollution is
a breeding ground for bacteria.
How do recreational activities cause
pollution problems in waterways?
• Boats leave gas and oil fumes in the water
• Humans leave garbage or change the
natural environment to build.
What is acid precipitation? What
are some of its effects?
• Acid precipitation is when snow or rain
pick up pollutants, from the air, as they fall
to the ground. The result is that the
precipitation turns into sulfuric or nitric
acid
• Some of the effects are: eats away at
buildings, kills plants, disrupts ecosystems.
Why should chemicals never be
dumped down household or street
drains?
• The drain may have a direct route to a
waterway
What is the Mid-Ocean Ridge?
• A chain of underwater mountains
Describe how volcanic activity
underwater is responsible for creating
new islands.
• When a volcano erupts, lava is release
from the opening and then cooled by the
surrounding water. Over time, this build
up the volcano until it is higher than the
water level.
How can rivers shape the Earth’s
surface?
• Please see erosion question
Why are glaciers called “Rivers of
Ice”?
• Glaciers are called rivers of ice because
they are constantly moving.
What is the difference between a
polar ice cap and a glaciers?
• Glaciers cover land and polar ice caps
cover water.
Explain how glaciers might be the answer to
the world’s fresh water resource problems?
• Since glaciers are sources of frozen fresh
water, if humanity needed to, we may be
able to recover fresh water by melting
parts of glaciers.
Explain how a tsunami happens.
• A tsunami happens when an earthquake,
volcanic eruption, or landslide happens
deep below the ocean.
• The resulting energy pushes some of the
water upwards.
• This force creates a wave that will
eventually crash against a coastline
Why are the rocks and stones found on
beaches usually round and smooth?
• Over time, the water moving over the
rocks makes them smooth and round in
shape (much like sandpaper does to
wood).
What does SCUBA stand for?
• Self Contained Underwater Breathing
Apparatus.
When was Scuba diving invented?
• In the 1940’s
Name and describe 2 devices that
humans use to explore the deep depths
of the ocean.
• Scuba gear
• Submersibles
• Sonar
• Underwater Cameras
What is meant by diversity?
• Diversity is the presence of many different
living things in one area.
• The more living things that are present in
one area, the more diverse that area is.
Why does diversity tend to decrease
the deeper you go in an ocean or a
lake?
• It decrease because the light does not penetrate
•
past a certain depth in the water and therefore
plants cannot survive in deep water. No plants,
less living things.
Also, the deeper down we go, the greater the
water pressure and harsher the environment
(pitch black). Only some organisms are
equipped to deal with these kind of conditions.
Less living things means less diversity!
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