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Notes 09/16
Class 03: Latin America
GEO105: World Regional Geography
Michael T. Wheeler
Syracuse University, Geography
Lecture slide 2
Global Tectonics
2
Lecture slide 3
Subduction
Oceanic
Crust
Continental Crust
Lithosphere
3
Lecture slide 4
Caribbean Tectonics
Oceanic
Crust
Continental Crust
Lithosphere
4
Lecture slide 5
Range of Central American Volcanoes
Oceanic
Crust
Continental Crust
Lithosphere
5
Lecture slide 6
Seismic Danger
6
Lecture slide 7
Landforms of Latin America
Figure 8.3: Physical regions and
landforms of Latin America
(p. 346)
7
Lecture slide 8
Climate regions
Figure 8.7: Climate regions of Latin America (p. 352)
8
Lecture slide 9
Atmospheric Circulation
Figure 2.8: Atmospheric
Circulation (p. 41)
9
Lecture slide 10
Atmospheric Circulation – Central America
10
Lecture slide 11
Orographic Rainfall
Figure 2.9: Orographic rainfall on a trade wind coast (p. 42)
11
Lecture slide 12
Altitudinal Zonation
Figure 8.8: Altitudinal zonation (p. 353)
12
Lecture slide 13
Pre-Columbia Civilizations
Figure 8.13: Maya, Aztec, and
Inca adaptations to
environment (p. 358)
13
Lecture slide 14
Languages
Figure 8.20: Languages of Latin
America (p. 373)
14
Lecture slide 15
Voyages of Discovery (Conquest)
Figure 8.14: Colonial voyages and the Treaty of Tordesillas (p. 359)
15
Lecture slide 16
Spanish World Empire
16
Lecture slide 17
Spanish Trade Routes
17
Lecture slide 18
Colonial Pacific Trade Routes
18
Lecture slide 19
Caribbean Trade Routes
19
Lecture slide 20
Colonial Shipping
20
Lecture slide 21
Iberian Imperial Structure
8.1: Latin America
21
Lecture slide 22
Imperial Differences
• English (United States)
–
–
–
–
Common law (jury)
Protestant
Agricultural
No inter-marriage w/ Native Americans
• French (Canada)
–
–
–
–
Roman law
Catholic
Interior trade. Settlement only: coasts, St. Lawrence, Louisiana, Illinois
Generally tolerant view of First Nations
• Spanish (Latin America)
–
–
–
–
Catholic
Army / Church / Merchants
Convert the Indians to Christianity
Lots of inter-marriage
22
Lecture slide 23
Break
8.18: Population Distribution of
Latin America 1995
23
Lecture slide 24
Review Questions
• Mapping Exercise 2: Mapping Ecosystems
– Textbook maps (8.1 (343), 8.3 (346), 8.7 (352))
• 393: U4
“How did the Spanish organize their colonies? What were the
two main forms of agriculture? What role did encomienda,
repartimiento, and slavery play? What exports to Spain?”
• 393: G2
“During the colonial era, how did racial, ethnic and class
distinctions divide Latin American societies?”
• Mapping Exercise 1: Mapping Ethnic and Racial
Composition
– Textbook, map 8.1 (343), table 8.1 (370)
24
Lecture slide 25
Ethnic and Racial Composition
•
p. 370
25
Lecture slide 26
Mapping Exercise 1
Map 8.3, p. 58
26
Lecture slide 27
Slave Triangle
Figure 6.14: The slave trade (p. 249)
27
Lecture slide 28
Slave Flow, by Century
Figure 6.14: The slave trade (p. 249)
28
Lecture slide 29
African Diaspora
•
•
estimated slave imports
– during whole period of
Atlantic slave trade
– Thousands (000s)
scale
– 1:75 000 000
estimated % of
population
entirely or
partially of
African
descent
29
Lecture slide 30
African Diaspora, Caribbean
•
estimated slave imports
– during whole period of
Atlantic slave trade
– thousands
estimated % of
population
entirely or
partially of
African
descent
30
Lecture slide 31
U.S. South – ‘Jim Crow’ Laws
• Legalized Segregation
• Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
– “separate but equal”
– Homer Plessy 1/8 black
– Sitting in ‘White’ RR Car
31
Lecture slide 32
Latin America castas
• Euro-American
– peninsulares (Iberian)
– criollos (whites born in the Americas)
• mestizo: white (European) and American Indian
– Originally applied to Phillipines, Malays
• mulatto: (Spanish / African)
• zambo: (African / Indian)
• Example of Brazil
– Slaves finally freed in 1888 (the Lei Áurea)
– “Racial democracy”
– Racial correlation of favelas (p. 384) with African
descendents
32
Lecture slide 33
New Colonial Powers: U.K. and U.S.
• Rebellion from
Spain, 1820s
• U.S. : Monroe
Doctrine, 1823
• U.K.: de facto
economic
hegemon
• U.S. Worldview,
1900 (this map)
33
Lecture slide 34
U.S. Interventions in Latin America
(Also see Figure 8.16: U.S. interventions in Latin America (p. 365)
34
Lecture slide 35
Panama (p. 389)
35
Lecture slide 36
Review
• Physical Hazards
– Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Hurricanes, El Niño (ENSO)
• Legacy of Colonialism
– Spanish / British / America
• Trade
– Export crops OR local consumption?
– Global or regional trade (WTO or NAFTA?)
• Race
– The “Red, White, and Black Continent”
– Economic consequences
36
Lecture slide 37
Debt, Trade, and Migration
8.19: Major migration streams
in Latin America (p. 372)
• Developing country
debt
• Export goods
• Global trade
– hope and
disappointment
• Migration
37
Lecture slide 38
Next Week
• Research Project
– Two-paragraph summary of your study area
• Reading
– Chapter 11: 492-537
• Review
– p. 535: Testing Your Understanding: 4, 5, 7, 10
– p. 536: Thinking Geographically: 1, 5
• Map Workbook:
– p. 84-5 (use map on pages 87). Mapping Exercise 1: "Geopolitical
Conflict," 1-5
• Web Page:
– classes.maxwell.syr.edu/geo105_f04/class_notes/
04-Review.htm
38
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