Ex - ACS205

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WHAT DO YOU THINK THIS UNIT IS ABOUT?
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UNIT 3
GLOBALIZATION
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF
BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSESENGLISH UNIT
What is globalization?
Globalization is a process of interaction and
integration among the people, companies, and
governments of different nations, a process driven by
international trade and investment and aided by
information technology
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF
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YOUR TURN!
1-Has globalization affected your country?
Think about the changes in recent years in:
Job opportunities
Culture
Fashion
Ideas
2-Do you think your country needs to be protected
from the effects of globalization?
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YOUR TURN!
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES &
DISADVANTAGES OF GLOBALIZATION?
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YOUR TURN!
ADVANTAGES
1. Integration of markets: Markets are interlinked- European Union
2. Cheaper Products for Consumer: Trainers are Cheap
3. Lowering of international Bariers: Now European Union can
Trade with ASEAN and NAFTA.
4. Providing jobs in LEDC's and help develop economy (less
Economically Developed Countries)
5. Standardization of products: coke and McDonalds
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YOUR TURN!
DISADVANTAGES
1. Intense Competition Cheaper Products for Consumer: Trainers are
Cheap
2. Widening of Gap between rich and poor countries
3. Harder for Smaller businesses to establish themselves
4. Exploitation of workers: Paying the workers in LEDC's a fraction of
what would be paid in to workers in LEDCs.
5. Income generated in Host country is not always spent in the same
country - money earned from supplying cheap call centres in India
will not be spent in India but maybe in UK or US.
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LISTENING
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF
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globalization(n) :
Word Formation : globalize (v)
Definition : the process of making something, such as a
business, operate in a lot of different countries all around
the world
Synonyms :Antonym :Collocations :Ex: Globalization may lead to destruction of local customs
and culture.
Ex: Some people think that the spread of English as an
international language is another result of globalization.
Ex: In order to earn more, most companies try to globalize.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
colonialism(n) :
A supporter of
colonialism
Word Formation : colonialist
Definition : when a powerful country rules a weaker one, and
establishes its own trade and society there
Synonyms : imperialism
Antonym : Collocations :Ex: As with the other institutions in the 3rd World,
education has been heavily influenced by colonialism.
Ex:In the 18th century, many countries were colonialist,
and try to find colonies to meet their needs.
Ex: As a result of colonialism, workforce in the developing
countries are mostly exploited.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
social justice(n) :
Word Formation :
Definition : The fair and proper administration of laws that
all persons, irrespective of ethnic origin, gender,
possessions, race, religion, etc., are to be treated equally
and without prejudice.
Ex: Social justice is based on the idea of a society which
gives individuals and groups fair treatment and share of
the benefits of society.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
commodity(n) :
Word Formation :Definition : a product that is bought and sold.
Synonyms :Antonym : Collocations : commodity-producing(adj),
basic/primary/agricultural commodity , buy/sell
commodity
Ex: The prices of agricultural commodities increased
suddenly in the winter.
Ex: Unlike oil, most Third World commodities are not
essential to the West any ore.
Ex: It’s clear that most of the commodity-producing
countries suffer from colonialism.
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multinational(adj) :
Word Formation : multinational (n)
Definition : a multinational company has factories, offices,
and business activities in many different countries
Synonyms : Antonym :Collocations :multinational company/firm/corporate
Ex: The growth of multinational corporations provided an
increase in investment in foreign countries.
Ex:With multinational firms, it’s hard to say where profits
are actually earned
Ex: Multinationals have made large investments in Thailand
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
poverty(n) :
Word Formation : Definition : the situation or experience of being poor
Synonyms :Antonym : Collocations : severe/extreme poverty, suffer/fight/reduce
poverty
Ex: Seven out of every ten Guatemalans live in poverty and
half cannot read and write.
Ex: We need an effective strategy to fight poverty
Ex: Poverty and unemployment are two of the biggest
causes of crime
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labour-saving(adj) :
Word Formation :Definition : making it easier for you to do a particular job
Synonyms :Antonym : Collocations : labour-saving device/gadget/equipment
Ex: After the luxury of labour-saving devices, it’s too hard
to go back to the old ways.
Ex: There are many labour-saving gadgets for the farmers
now, so they don’t have to do everything by human force.
Ex: If you can afford it, buy some labour-saving devices, like
a washing machine.
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corruption(n) :
Word Formation :Definition : dishonest, illegal, or immoral behaviour esp.
from someone with power
Synonyms :Antonym : Collocations : widespread corruption
Ex: The officials were charged with bribery and corruption
Ex: The investigation uncovered widespread corruption
within the police force
Ex: The country’s government has been accused of
corruption and abuse of power
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vary(v):
Word Formation :Definition : if several things of the same type vary, they are
all different from each other
Synonyms : differ
Antonym : Collocations : vary from..to.. , vary according to , very
greatly/significantly/slightly
Ex: Test scores vary from school to school.
Ex: Charges vary according to size.
Ex: Medical treatment varies greatly from state to state.
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turnover(n):
Word Formation :Definition : the amount of business done during a
particular period
Synonyms :Antonym : Collocations : turnover of, high/large/total/annual
turnover, insrease turnover, turnover fall
Ex: The drugs industry has an annual turnover of $200bn.
Ex: Last year, they increased turnover by nearly $100m.
Ex: The company’s turnover for 2009 fell to $80m, from
nearly $95m the previous year.
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LISTENING
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LISTENING
Indira Prabhu is an economist from India. She is being
interviewed about globalization.
1. What do you think her views will be on the following
topics:
 Globalization as colonialism
 Social justice
 The relationship between commodity-producing countries
and multinationals
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LISTENING
2. Indira Prabhu’s views on:
Globalization as colonialism
She does not agree that globalization is the new face
of colonialism. On the contrary, she thinks that it is
the best way of fighting poverty.
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LISTENING
2. Indira Prabhu’s views on:
Social justice
Workers will eventually demand social reforms and
conditions will improve.
Poor working conditions are the effect of poverty in
the country itself, not of globalization.
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LISTENING
2. Indira Prabhu’s views on:
The relationship between commodity-producing
countries and multinationals
Multinationals take advantage of commodityproducing countries and dictate low prices which do
not reflect the value of the products.
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LISTENING
3. Now, Indira discusses the impact globalization has had
on developed countries.
Listen and answer the questions.
1-According to her, who has most to fear from
globalization?
2-What does the interviewer say is a main worry for the
West?
3-What is the main reason for job losses in the USA?
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LISTENING
3. ANSWERS
1-According to her, who has most to fear from globalization?
People in the West / in developed countries have most to fear from
globalization
2-What does the interviewer say is a main worry for the West?
Parents are worried that their children’s lives will be harder than
their own. There are also people who have become unemployed
because their jobs have gone abroad.
3-What is the main reason for job losses in the USA?
Labour-saving efficiencies, not companies moving abroad.
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LISTENING
4. Listen to Part C and answer the questions.
1-What problems are created when countries export
knowledge?
2-How does Indira feel about the move into the service
sector?
3-How can developed countries maintain their world
position?
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LISTENING
4. ANSWERS
1-What problems are created when countries export knowledge?
If poorer countries gain knowledge, they can overtake rich countries
because they will have both know-how and cheaper labour and
production costs.
2-How does Indira feel about the move into the service sector?
She thinks that the service sector will not be enough to support a
developed economy; it needs manufacturing as well.
3-How can developed countries maintain their world position?
They can maintain their world position by continuing to invest in
innovation.
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LISTENING
5.
How far do you agree with what Indıra said?
Were you surprised by any of her views?
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READING
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CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF
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GDP(gross domestic product) :
Word Formation : Definition : the total value of all goods and services produced
in a country in one year, except for income received from
abroad
Ex: The GDP of India is about $60 bn, and the government
is trying to increase it.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
GNP(gross national product) :
Word Formation : Definition : the total value of all goods and services
produced in a country, usually in a single year
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distribution channel :
Word Formation :Definition : a way of selling a company's product either
directly or via distributors
Ex: The company has decided to change its distribution
channels, because they believe that the reason why they
cannot reach the customers is them.
Ex: Possible distribution channels are wholesalers or small
retailers or retail chains or direct mailers or your own stores.
Ex: What is the extent of your distribution channel?
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
joint venture ( n.phr. ):
Word Formation :Definition : A partnership or conglomerate, formed
often to share risk or expertise
Ex: In A joint venture between the film companies to
produce TV shows, they share the risk of failure
Ex: Avea is a joint venture between Aria and Aycell.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
disposable income( ):
Word Formation :Definition : income (after taxes, bills, etc.) that is
available to you for saving or spending
Ex: Do consumers have enough disposable income in Turkey?
Ex: The percentage of disposable income spent at
supermarkets has declined since 1980s.
Ex: To provide welfare among people, the government is
planning to pay additional disposable income.
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economic outlook( ):
Word Formation :Definition : general attitude to economy
Ex: At the end of 19th century, economic outlook began to
improve in the US.
Ex: The economic outlook of Japan is manly based on the
production of machines.
Ex: Most companies need international economic outlook
to improve.
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consumer base( n.phr.):
Word Formation :Definition : It refers to the clients to whom a business sells
products and services
Ex: A company should analyze its consumer base to
identifty the number of currently active customers
and to understand their purchase behaviours.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
development zone( n.phr. ):
Word Formation :
Definition : refers to an area, especially in or near a city,
where the government tries to encourage economic
development by offering financial advantages to people who
start companies, factories, etc. there:
Ex: Nationwide, almost 4,000 industrial parks and
development zones are under construction.
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hurdle(n) :
Word Formation : -
Definition : An obstacle or difficulty to be overcome
Synonyms : obstacle
Antonym :Collocations :overcome/clear/get over a hurdle
Ex: Finding enough money for the project was the first
hurdle.
Ex: There are several hurdles to get over in someone’s
career.
Ex: His biggest hurdle to get the job will be the interview.
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emerge(v) :
being in the process of
emerging or developing
Word Formation : emerging(adj)
Definition : to become known
Synonyms : appear
Antonym :Collocations :
Ex: Many details of the plan emerged at yesterday’s meeting.
Ex: More research in consumer buying and behaviour in
emerging electronic markets is needed.
Ex: The country’s emerging oil industry seems to be a good
value in the near future.
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outstanding(adj) :
Word Formation : outstandingly (adv)
Definition : very great or clear
Synonyms : noticable
Antonym :
Collocations : outstanding performance/success
Ex: It’s certainly true that the project proved an
outstanding success.
Ex: She did outstandingly well in the job interview. I’m
sure they’ll hire her.
Ex:
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
culminate(v) :
Word Formation : culmination(n)
Definition : if a process culminates in or with a particular
event, it ends with that event
Culmination of sth:
Synonyms : Something that happens
Antonym :at the aned of a long
period of effort or
Collocations : culminate in / with
development
Ex: These efforts will culminate in the success of the
project.
Ex: This book represents the culmination of 15 years’ work
Ex: This company is very important for him because it is the
culmination of a lot of effort and time.
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fertile(adj) :
Word Formation : -
Definition : Highly or continuously productive
Synonyms : prolific
Antonym : infertile
Collocations : Ex: There are a lot of fertile areas in the East part of Turkey.
Ex: This are is infertile, so we didn’t clear it for cultivation.
Ex: Some developing countries are really fertile markets for
multinational companies.
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strive for(v) :
Word Formation :
Definition : make a great effort to achieve sth
Synonyms :
Antonym :
Collocations :always/constantly strive for
Ex: The company must constantly strive for more efficiency.
Ex: This is the nature of science, always striving for a set of
rules and solutions
Ex: Commitment to health service means constantly
striving for better ways.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
prudent(adj) :
Word Formation :
Definition : sensible and careful, esp by trying to avoid risks
Synonyms :
Antonym :
Collocations :
Ex: It’s more prudent, more rational and more natural to
use organic materials.
Ex: If you want to run a business abroa, you should be
prudent. Their customs and values may be different.
Ex:
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
determined (adj) :
Word Formation :Definition : having a strong desire to do sth
Synonyms :Antonym :Collocations : determined to ...
Ex: He is determined to be the best jazz musician ever.
Ex: The company is determined to be the leading one in
the textile industry.
Ex: They have just set up the business,however, they
are determined to be the best in the country.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
estimate(v) :
Word Formation : estimated (adj)
Definition : to try to judge the value, size, cost, etc. of sth
wthout calculating it exactly
Synonyms :Antonym :Collocations : estimate that, be estimated to ...
Ex: Scientists estimate that smoking reduces life
expactancy by around 12 years.
Ex: Based on estimated rates of inflation, employees will
get a big salary increase.
Ex: At this point, the profit is estimated to be around $40
m.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
evaluate(v) :
Word Formation : evaluation(n)
Definition : to judge how good, useful, or succesful
something is
Synonyms : assess
Antonym :Collocations :carry out an evaluation , evaluate carefully
Ex: We need to evaluate the success of the campaign
carefully
Ex: There wasn’t enough time to evaluate the information
before the meeting.
Ex: The managers are carrying out an evaluation of the new
system . They are assessing pros and cons.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
reveal(v) :
Word Formation : Definition : to make known sth that was previously
unknown or secret
Synonyms : Antonym : conceal
Collocations : Ex: A succesful test can reveal a manager’s skills.
Ex: The company has just revealed its plans for the coming
year, including the opening of new offices in Paris.
Ex: The rates declared at the end of the year revealed the
GDP of the country.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
expand(v) :
Word Formation : expansion(n)
Definition : if a company, business expands, or someone
expands it, they open new shops, factories, etc.
Synonyms : Antonym : Collocations : economic/great/international expansion,
expand greatly/rapidly
Ex: The hotel wants to expand its business by opening new
hotels in various parts of the world.
Ex: The computer industry has expanded greatly over the
last decade.
Ex: The food industry underwent a period of expansion.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
distinct(adj) :
Word Formation : distinction(n)
Definition : clearly different or belonging to a different
type
Synonyms : Antonym :Collocations : distinct types/groups/categories , distinct
from
Ex: The European Union is made up of 15 nations with
distinct cultural, linguistic and economic roots.
Ex: The target audience of two hospitality groups are quite
distinct from each other.
Ex: There was a distinct local advertising market to support
the company.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
commit(v) :
Word Formation : commitment(n)
 Definition : to promise or give your loyalty, time or money
to a particular principle, person or plan of action
Ex: Like so many men, he has problems committing himself to
a relationship.
Ex: The government must commit itself to improving health
care.
Ex: Once we have committed to this course of action there is
no going back.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
READING
2. Scan the text and answer the questions.
1. Which western multinational companies does the text
mention?
2. What is the significance of these numbers?
£600 $995bn 2.7bn 50 miles 365m 235 80m 200
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE
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2.1. Which western multinational companies
does the text mention?
2.2. What is the significance of these numbers?
600: the number of women the L’Oreal researchers
watched taking a shower
995bn: GDP of China
2.7bn: the value of the Chinese cosmetics market
50 miles: the distance from Shanghai to the new
economic development zone
2.2. What is the significance of these numbers?
365m: the urban population of China
235: the number of McDonald’s in Chinese cities
80million: the number of purchasers of L’Oreal
products in China
200: the number of products L’Oreal tested
READING
3. Read the text and answer the questions
1-What does L’Oreal’s ‘bathroom’ research hope to achieve?
2-Why do you think Paolo Gasparini talks about Chinese
pharmacies?
3-Why is China such an attractive market for foreign
businesses?
4-What has China done to encourage foreign businesses
to set up near Shanghai?
5-Why didn’t L’Oreal enter the Chinese market earlier?
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READING
3. Read the text and answer the questions
6-How did L’Oreal plan its entry into the Chinese market?
7-How useful has L’Oreal’s joint venture with the Suzhou medical
college been?
8-Maybelline, L’Oreal Paris, and Lancome are all brands of L’Oreal,
but they are sold in china through different sale outlets. Why do
you think this happens?
9-According to Paolo Gasparini, what is the difficulty and
importance of recruiting good local staff?
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READING
3. ANSWERS
1-What does L’Oreal’s ‘bathroom’ research hope to achieve?
It intends to discover how Chinese women use the products
L’Oreal is promoting
2-Why do you think Paolo Gasparini talks about Chinese
pharmacies?
The company is interested in using pharmacies as points of sales
3-Why is China such an attractive market for foreign businesses?
It is a very large market with a growing spending power
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READING
3. ANSWERS
4-What has China done to encourage foreign businesses to set up
near Shanghai?
It has opened a new economic development zone
5-Why didn’t L’Oreal enter the Chinese market earlier?
Before the early 1990s it thought that the average incomes were
too low and the distribution channels poor
6-How did L’Oreal plan its entry into the Chinese market?
It tested about 200 products, launched a joint venture with a
medical college and started an extensive R&D programme
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READING
3. ANSWERS
7-How useful has L’Oreal’s joint venture with the Suzhou medical
college been?
It helped them to reformulate their products for the Chinese
market
8-Maybelline, L’Oreal Paris, and Lancome are all brands of L’Oreal,
but they are sold in china through different sale outlets. Why do
you think this happens?
They are aimed at different target markets who will make their
purchases from different sales outlets
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READING
3. ANSWERS
9-According to Paolo Gasparini, what is the difficulty and
importance of recruiting good local staff?
The difficulty is in finding the right personnel since marketing is
new to the country. Gasparini thinks having the right staff is the
key to becoming market leader
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READING
4. Match a word from box A with one from Box B to form
collocations from the text.
 Outstanding potential
 Economic outlook
 Production facility
 Distribution channel
 Development zone
 Consumer base
 Joint venture
 Disposable income
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
READING
5. Complete the sentences with an appropriate collocation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Development zone
Consumer base
Production facility
Economic outlook
Disposable income
Joint venture
Distribution channel
Outstanding potential
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WORKBOOK
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take advantage of something(phr.v):
Word Formation : Definition : to use a particular situation to do or get what
you want
Synonyms :Antonym :Collocations :
Ex: I took advantage of good weather to paint the shed.
Ex: Some developing countries have important natural
sources, but they don’t know how to use them. At this
point, developed countries take advantage of this
situation and set up factories there.
Ex: Bill took advantage of his height and joined the
basketball team.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
take place ( phr.v ):
Word Formation :Definition : to happen , esp after being planned or
arranged
Synonyms :Antonym :Collocations :Ex: The talks between two sides are still taking place.
Ex:The final exam will take place in June.
Ex: Major changes are taking place in society.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
take on ( phr.v. ):
Word Formation : Definition : to agree to do some work or be responsible for
something
Synonyms : Antonym :Collocations :Ex: Don’t take on too much work. The extra cash isn’t worth it.
Ex: We have taken on too much work lately. I hope we can
handle it.
Ex: If you take on too much responsibility, you will most
probably be stressed , which may lead to several
problems.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
take over from ( phr.v ):
Word Formation :
Definition : to begin to do something that someone
else was doing
Synonyms : to replace
Ex: Jane took over as the director after Richard retired.
Ex: Can you take over the cooking while I walk the
dog?
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
take the opportunity ( phr.v):
Word Formation :Definition : do sth you have a chance to do
Synonyms :Antonym : Collocations :Ex: Several employees took the opportunity of retiring
early.
Ex: A lot of students have taken the opportunity of turning
back to school this semester
Ex: I took the opportunity of studying with Prof. Adams,
which was an amazing experience.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
take part in (phr.v ):
Word Formation :Definition : to be involved in an activity, sport, event, etc
with other people
Synonyms :Antonym : Collocations :Ex: About 400 students took part in te protest.
Ex: Some of the executive managers didn’t take part in the
meeting yesterday.
Ex: She wanted to take part in the conference , but she was
ill.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
take up ( phr.v ):
Word Formation :Definition : to start a new job or have a new responsibility
Synonyms :Antonym :Collocations :Ex: Peter will take up the management of the finance
department
Ex: The company is planning to take up a few new
departments.
Ex:
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
take off (phr.v ):
Word Formation :
Definition : to become successful or popular very fast
Ex: Her business has really taken off.
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
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