Chapter 6

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Climate, Terrestrial Biodiversity, and
Aquatic Biodiversity
G. Tyler Miller, Jr.’s
Environmental Science
10th Edition
Chapter 6
Key Concepts
 Factors influencing weather and climate
 Effect of climate on distribution of biomes
 Characteristics of major biome types
 Saltwater and freshwater life zones
 Human impacts on biosphere
Blowing in the Wind
 Benefits of wind
 Hazards of wind
 “Red Tides”
 Volcanoes and climate
 Everything is connected
Fig. 6-1, p. 106
Weather and Climate
What is weather?
How meteorologists predict weather
What is climate?
Factors Associated with Climate
Temperature
Precipitation
Uneven heating
Seasons
Earth’s rotation
Properties of air
and water
Fig. 6-2 p. 107
Global Climatic Zones
Polar (ice)
Warm temperate
Highland
Warm ocean current
Subarctic (snow)
Dry
Major upwelling zones
Cold ocean current
Cool temperate
Tropical
River
Fig. 6-3, p. 108
Seasons
Fig. 6-4 p. 108
Global Air Circulation
And Biomes
Fig. 6-8, p. 107
Fig. 6-5, p. 109
Shore Upwelling
Movement of
surface water
Wind
Diving birds
Fish
Upwelling
Zooplankton
Phytoplankton
Nutrients
Fig. 6-6, p. 110
El Niño-Southern Oscillation: ENSO
Fig. 6-7, p. 110
Global Climatic Effects of ENSO
El Niño
Drought
Unusually high rainfall
Unusually warm periods
Fig. 6-8, p. 111
Greenhouse Effect
Fig. 6-9, p. 111
Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse gases
Human impact
Global warming
Impacts of global warming
Ozone Layer
Located in stratosphere
UV protection
Decline in ozone
Consequences of ozone decline
Microclimates
Rain shadow effect
Cities
Land-ocean interactions
a Winds carry
moisture inland
from Pacific Ocean
b Clouds, rain on
windward side of
mountain range
c Rain shadow on
leeward side of
mountain range
Dry habitats
Moist habitats
Fig. 6-10, p. 112
Biomes
Climatic effects on biomes
Not uniform
“Mosaic of patches”
Effects of latitude and altitude
Earth’s Major Biomes
Tropic of
Cancer
Equator
Tropic of
Capricorn
Arctic tundra (polar grasslands)
Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen coniferous
forest (e.g., montane coniferous forest)
Temperate deciduous forest
Temperate grassland
Dry woodlands and
shrublands (chaparral)
Desert
Tropical rain forest,
tropical evergreen forest
Tropical deciduous forest
Tropical scrub forest
Tropical savanna,
thorn forest
Semidesert,
arid grassland
Mountains
(complex zonation)
Ice
Fig. 6-11, p. 113
Precipitation and Temperature
Affects Biome Type
Fig. 6-12, p. 114
Effects of Altitude and Latitude
on Climate and Biomes
Altitude
Mountain
Ice and snow
Tundra (herbs,
lichens,
mosses)
Coniferous
Forest
Latitude
Deciduous
Forest
Tropical
Forest
Tropical
Forest
Deciduous
Forest
Coniferous
Forest
Tundra (herbs,
lichens, mosses)
Polar ice
and snow
Fig. 6-13, p. 114
Biomes: Climate and Life
 Desert biomes
 Grassland biomes
 Forest biomes
 Mountain biomes
 Aquatic biomes
Deserts
What is a desert?
Tropical deserts
Temperate deserts
Cold deserts
Semideserts
Unique properties of desert life
Temperate Desert Ecosystem
Red-tailed hawk
Gambel's
quail
Yucca
Jack
rabbit
Collared
lizard
Agave
Prickly
pear
cactus
Roadrunner
Diamondback rattlesnake
Darkling
beetle
Bacteria
Fungi
Kangaroo rat
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 6-14, p. 115
Major Human Impacts on Deserts
Large desert cities
Soil destruction by vehicles
and urban development
Soil salinization from irrigation
Depletion of underground
water supplies
Land disturbance and pollution
from mineral extraction
Storage of toxic and radioactive
Wastes
Large arrays of solar cells and
solar collectors used to produce
electricity
Fig. 6-15, p. 116
Grasslands
Effects of drought, herbivores and fires
Savanna
Grazers and browsers
Prairies
Veldt
Tundra and permafrost
Grazing Animals of the African Savanna
(Dry and Moist Grasslands)
Cape buffalo
Wildebeest
Beisa oryx
Topi
Warthog
Thompson's
gazelle
Dry Grassland
Waterbuck
Grant's zebra
Moist Grassland
Fig. 6-16a, p. 117
Grazing Animals of the African
Savanna (Scrub and Forest Lands)
Giraffe
African elephant
Gerenuk
Black rhino
Dik-dik
East African
eland
Dry Thorn Scrub
Blue duiker
Greater
kudu
Bushbuck
Riverine Forest
Fig. 6-16b, p. 117
Temperate Tall-grass Prairie Ecosystem
Golden eagle
Pronghorn antelope
Coyote
Grasshopper
sparrow
Grasshopper
Blue stem
grass
Prairie
dog
Bacteria
Fungi
Prairie
coneflower
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 6-17, p. 118
Replacing Temperate Grassland with
Farms
DO NOT POST TO INTERNET
Fig. 6-18, p. 119
Human Impacts on Grasslands
Conversion of savanna and temperate
grassland to cropland
Release of CO2 to atmosphere from
burning and conversion of grassland
to cropland
Overgrazing of tropical and temperate
grasslands by livestock
Damage to fragile arctic tundra
by oil production, air and water pollution,
and vehicles
Fig. 6-19, p. 119
Forests
What is a forest?
Tropical forests
Broadleaf evergreen plants
Deciduous forests
Evergreen coniferous (boreal) forests
Muskegs
Coastal forests
Harpy
eagle
Blue and
gold macaw
Ocelot
Squirrel
monkeys
Tropical Rain
Forest Ecosystem
Climbing
monstera palm
Slaty-tailed
trogon
Katydid
Green tree snake
Tree frog
Ants
Bromeliad
Fungi
Bacteria
Producer
to primary
consumer
Fig. 6-20, p. 120
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Stratification of Niches: Tropical Rain Forest
45
Fig. 6-21, p. 121
Harpy
eagle
40
Height (meters)
35
Emergent
layer
Toco
toucan
Canopy
30
25
20
Understory
Wooly
opossum
15
10
Brazilian
tapir
5
Black-crowned
antpitta
0
Shrub
layer
Ground
layer
Broad-winged
hawk
Hairy
woodpecker
Temperate
Deciduous
Forest
Ecosystem
Gray
squirrel
White oak
White-footed
mouse
White-tailed
deer
Metallic
Metallic woodboring
beetle
wood-boring
and
larvae
beetle
and
Shagbark hickory
May beetle
Fungi
Long-tailed
weasel
Producer
to primary
consumer
Racer
Wood frog
Bacteria
Fig. 6-22, p. 122
Mountain
winterberry
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Great
horned
owl
Blue jay
Evergreen
Coniferous
(Boreal or
Taiga)
Forest
Ecosystem
Marten
Balsam fir
Moose
White
spruce
Wolf
Bebb
willow
Pine sawyer
beetle and larvae
Snowshoe
hare
Fungi
Starflower
Bunchberry
Bacteria
Fig. 6-23, p. 123
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Human Impacts on Forests
Clearing and degradation of tropical
forests for agriculture, livestock grazing,
and timber harvesting
Clearing of temperate deciduous
forests in Europe, Asia, and
North America for timber, agriculture,
and urban development
Clearing of evergreen coniferous
forests in North America, Finland,
Sweden, Canada, Siberia,
and Russia
Conversion of diverse forests to less
biodiverse tree plantations
Fig. 6-24, p. 124
Mountains
What is a mountain?
Ecological importance of mountains
“Islands of biodiversity”
Climate regulation
Mountain glaciers and affects on sea level
Hydrologic cycle
Human impacts on mountains
Human Impacts on Mountains
Landless poor migrating uphill
to survive
Timber extraction
Mineral resource extraction
Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs
Increasing tourism
(such as hiking and skiing)
Air pollution from industrial and
urban centers
Increased ultraviolet radiation from
ozone depletion
Fig. 6-25, p. 124
Aquatic Environments: Types and
Characteristics
Aquatic life zones
Saltwater (marine) systems
Freshwater systems
The Aquatic World
Lakes
Rivers
Coral reefs
Mangroves
Fig. 6-26, p. 125
Organisms in Aquatic Life Zones
 Plankton
 Nekton
 Benthos
 Decomposers
Factors Limiting Life with Water
Depths
 Temperature
 Sunlight (photosynthesis; euphotic zone)
 Dissolved oxygen
 Nutrients (net primary productivity)
Saltwater (Marine) Life Zones
 Open ocean
 Coastal zone
 Estuaries
 Coastal wetlands
 Mangroves
 Intertidal zones (shores)
 Coral reefs
The Ocean Planet
Ocean hemisphere
Land-ocean hemisphere
Fig. 6-27, p. 126
Marine Biodiversity
Cobia
Hogfish
Kelp
Pacific sailfish
Carrageen
Moray
Red snapper
Yellow jack
Red algae
Batfish
Striped drum
Sea lettuce
Bladder kelp
Angelfish
Orange roughy
Chinook salmon
Devilfish
Porcupine fish
Great barracuda
Laminaria
Sockeye salmon
Grouper
Dulse
Chilean sea bass
Fig. 6-28, p. 126
Marine Systems
Natural Capital:
Marine Systems
Ecological Services
Economic Services
• Climate moderation
• Food
• CO2 absorption
• Animal and pet
feed (fish meal)
• Nutrient cycling
• Pharmaceuticals
• Waste treatment
and dilution
• Reduced storm
impact (mangrove,
barrier islands,
coastal wetlands)
• Habitats and
nursery areas for
marine and
terrestrial species
• Genetic resources
and biodiversity
• Harbors and
transportation
routes
• Coastal habitats
for humans
• Recreation
• Employment
• Offshore oil and
natural gas
• Minerals
© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
Fig. 6-29, p. 127
• Scientific
information
• Building materials
Ocean Zones
Coastal Zone Open Sea
Sea level
Depth in
meters
0
50
Euphotic Zone
Estuarine
Zone
100
Continental
shelf
200
500
Bathyal Zone
1,000
Photosynthesis
Sun
Twilight
High tide
Low tide
1,500
2,000
3,000
4,000
Fig. 6-30, p. 128
© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
5,000
10,000
Darkness
Abyssal Zone
Sediment Plume in an Estuary
DO NOT POST TO INTERNET
Figure 6-31, p. 128
Peregrine falcon
Herring gulls
Snowy
egret
Cordgrass
Short-billed
dowitcher
Salt Marsh
Ecosystem
Marsh
periwinkle
Phytoplankton
Smelt
Zooplankton and
small crustaceans
Soft-shelled
clam
Clamworm
Bacteria
Fig. 6-32, p. 129
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Rocky Shore Beach
Sea star
Hermit crab
Shore crab
High tide
Periwinkle
Sea urchin
Anemone
Mussel
Low tide
Sculpin
Barnacles
Kelp Sea lettuce
Monterey flatworm
Nudibranch
Fig. 6-33a, p. 130
Barrier Beach
Beach flea
Tiger beetle
Peanut worm
Blue crab
Clam
Dwarf
olive
High tide
Sandpiper
Silversides
Mole
shrimp
Low tide
White sand
macoma
Sand dollar
Ghost
shrimp
Moon snail
Fig. 6-33b, p. 130
Primary and Secondary Beach Dunes
Ocean
Beach
Primary Dune
Intensive recreation,
no building
Trough
Secondary Dune
No direct
Limited
passage
recreation
or building and walkways
Grasses or shrubs
No direct
passage
or building
Taller shrubs
Back Dune
Bay or
Lagoon
Most suitable
for development
Intensive
recreation
Bay shore
No filling
Taller shrubs and trees
Fig. 6-34, p. 131
Coral Reefs
Fig. 6-35, p. 132
Major Threats to Coral Reefs
Ocean warming
Soil erosion
Algae growth from fertilizer
runoff
Mangrove destruction
Coral reef bleaching
Rising sea levels
Increased UV exposure from
ozone depletion
Using cyanide and dynamite
to harvest coral reef fish
Coral removal for building
material, aquariums, and
jewelry
Damage from anchors, ships,
and tourist divers
Fig. 6-36, p. 133
Human Impacts on Marine Systems
Half of coastal wetlands lost to
agriculture and urban development
Over one-third of mangrove forests lost
since 1980 to agriculture, development,
and aquaculture shrimp farms
About 10% of world’s beaches eroding
because of coastal development
and rising sea level
Ocean bottom habitats degraded by
dredging and trawler fishing boats
Over 25% of coral reefs severely
damaged and 11% have been destroyed
Fig. 6-37, p. 133
Freshwater Life Zones
Standing water
Flowing water
Fig. 6-40, p. 135
Freshwater Biodiversity
Bluegill
Brook trout
White waterlily
White bass
Bulrush
Muskellunge
Rainbow darter
Water lettuce
Bowfish
Water hyacinth
Bladderwort
Largemouth black bass
Black crappie
White sturgeon
Yellow perch
Velvet cichlid
American smelt
Walleyed pike
Eelgrass
Longnose gar
Common piranha
Carp
Channel catfish
Egyptian
white lotus
African lungfish
Fig. 6-38, p. 134
Freshwater Systems
Ecological Services
Natural Capital:
Freshwater
Systems
Economic Services
• Climate moderation
• Food
• Nutrient cycling
• Drinking water
• Waste treatment
and dilution
• Irrigation water
• Hydroelectricity
• Flood control
• Groundwater
recharge
• Transportation
corridors
• Recreation
• Habitats for aquatic
and terrestrial
species
• Employment
• Genetic resources
and biodiversity
© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
• Scientific
information
Fig. 6-39, p. 135
Life Zones in Lakes
Littoral zone
Limnetic zone
Profundal zone
Benthic zone
Nutrients in Lakes: Oligotrophic
Fig. 6-41a, p. 136
Nutrients in Lakes: Eutrophic
Fig. 6-41b, p. 136
Stream Systems
Runoff
Watershed
Drainage basin
Floodplain
Fig. 6-42, p. 136
Inland Wetlands
Importance of Wetlands
Types:
 Marshes
 Swamps
 Prairie potholes
 Floodplains
 Bogs and fens
 Tundra
 Seasonal
Human Impacts on Freshwater
Systems
Dams, diversions and canals
Flood control levees and dikes
Wetland destruction
Sustainability of Aquatic Life
Zones
Pollution
Natural renewal
Ecology: “Everything is connected”
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